中部 57 狗行者經 (狗戒經, 守狗戒者經)
(MN 57 Kukkuravatikasuttaṃ, Kukkuravatika Sutta)
(The Dog-Duty Ascetic)
對讀


巴利原典
(CSCD)001

7. Kukkuravatikasuttaṃ

78. Evaṃ me sutaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā koliyesu viharati haliddavasanaṃ nāma koliyānaṃ nigamo. Atha kho puṇṇo ca koliyaputto govatiko acelo ca seniyo kukkuravatiko yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Acelo pana seniyo kukkuravatiko bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā kukkurova palikujjitvā [palikuṇṭhitvā (syā. kaṃ.), paliguṇṭhitvā (ka.)] ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘ayaṃ , bhante, acelo seniyo kukkuravatiko dukkarakārako chamānikkhittaṃ bhojanaṃ bhuñjati. Tassa taṃ kukkuravataṃ dīgharattaṃ samattaṃ samādinnaṃ. Tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo’’ti? ‘‘Alaṃ, puṇṇa, tiṭṭhatetaṃ; mā maṃ etaṃ pucchī’’ti. Dutiyampi kho puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko…pe… tatiyampi kho puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘ayaṃ, bhante, acelo seniyo kukkuravatiko dukkarakārako chamānikkhittaṃ bhojanaṃ bhuñjati. Tassa taṃ kukkuravataṃ dīgharattaṃ samattaṃ samādinnaṃ. Tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo’’ti?
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi.) 002

7. The Dog-Duty Ascetic
(Kukkuravatika Sutta, Kukkuravatikasuttaṃ)

78.
1. THUS HAVE I HEARD. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Koliyan country where there was a town of the Koliyans named Haliddavasana.

2. Then Puṇṇa, son of the Koliyans, an ox-duty ascetic, and also Seniya, a naked dog-duty ascetic, went to the Blessed One. 005 Puṇṇa, the ox-duty ascetic, paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side, while Seniya, the naked dog-duty ascetic, exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he too sat down at one side curled up like a dog. Puṇṇa, the ox-duty ascetic, said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, this Seniya is a naked dog-duty ascetic who does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown to the ground. He has long taken up and practised that dog-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

“Enough, Puṇṇa, let that be. Do not ask me that.” A second time…And a third time Puṇṇa, the ox-duty ascetic, said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, this Seniya is a naked dog-duty ascetic who does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown to the ground. He has long taken up and practised that dog-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003

五十七.狗戒經(Kukkuravatikasuttaṃ)

78. 這是我所聽見的:

  有一次,世尊住在拘利一個稱為訶利陀的市鎮。

  這時候,一個名叫富那.拘利子的牛戒修行人和一個名叫舍尼耶的狗戒裸體外道一起前往世尊那裏,富那對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。舍尼耶和世尊互相問候,作了一些悅意的交談,然後像狗那樣彎曲身體坐下來。富那對世尊說: “大德,舍尼耶是持狗戒的,他修習艱苦的苦行,吃人們放在地上的食物,長期修習、不斷修習這種狗戒,他的趣向怎麼樣,下一生將會怎麼樣呢?”

  “富那,不。不要問這些事情。”

  富那第二次對世尊說……

  “富那,不。不要問這些事情。”

  富那第三次對世尊說: “大德,舍尼耶是持狗戒的,他修習艱苦的苦行,吃人們放在地上的食物,長期修習、不斷修習這種狗戒,他的趣向怎麼樣,下一生將會怎麼樣呢?”

漢譯
(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)004

中部57經/守狗戒者經(屋主品[6])(莊春江譯)
(Kukkuravatikasuttaṃ)

78.   我聽到這樣 016

  有一次 017 ,世尊 018 住在拘利國名叫哈利達瓦沙那的拘利族人城鎮。

  那時,守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那與守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶去見世尊。抵達後,守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那向世尊問訊 019 ,接著在一旁坐下。守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶與世尊互相歡迎。歡迎與寒暄後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那對世尊這麼說:

  「大德 020 !這位守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶是做難作者,他吃放置在地上食物,他的那狗戒長時間完全地被受持,他的趣處是什麼?來世是什麼?」

  「夠了!富樓那!隨它吧 021 ,請不要問我這個!」

  第二次,守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那……(中略)。第三次,守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那對世尊這麼說:

  「大德!這位守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶做難作的,他吃放置在地上食物,他的那狗戒長時間完全地被受持,他的趣處是什麼?來世是什麼?」

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
79. ‘‘Addhā kho te ahaṃ, puṇṇa, na labhāmi. Alaṃ, puṇṇa, tiṭṭhatetaṃ; mā maṃ etaṃ pucchīti; api ca tyāhaṃ byākarissāmi. Idha, puṇṇa, ekacco kukkuravataṃ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, kukkurasīlaṃ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, kukkuracittaṃ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ , kukkurākappaṃ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ. So kukkuravataṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, kukkurasīlaṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, kukkuracittaṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, kukkurākappaṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā kukkurānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjati. Sace kho panassa evaṃdiṭṭhi hoti – ‘imināhaṃ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā devo vā bhavissāmi devaññataro vā’ti, sāssa sāyaṃ (ka.) hoti micchādiṭṭhi. Micchādiṭṭhissa micchādiṭṭhikassa (sī.) kho ahaṃ, puṇṇa, dvinnaṃ gatīnaṃ aññataraṃ gatiṃ vadāmi – nirayaṃ vā tiracchānayoniṃ vā. Iti kho, puṇṇa, sampajjamānaṃ kukkuravataṃ kukkurānaṃ sahabyataṃ upaneti, vipajjamānaṃ niraya’’nti. Evaṃ vutte, acelo seniyo kukkuravatiko parodi, assūni pavattesi.

Atha kho bhagavā puṇṇaṃ koliyaputtaṃ govatikaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘etaṃ kho te ahaṃ, puṇṇa, nālatthaṃ. Alaṃ, puṇṇa, tiṭṭhatetaṃ; mā maṃ etaṃ pucchī’’ti. ‘‘Nāhaṃ, bhante, etaṃ rodāmi yaṃ maṃ bhagavā evamāha; api ca me idaṃ, bhante, kukkuravataṃ dīgharattaṃ samattaṃ samādinnaṃ. Ayaṃ, bhante, puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko. Tassa taṃ govataṃ dīgharattaṃ samattaṃ samādinnaṃ. Tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo’’ti? ‘‘Alaṃ, seniya, tiṭṭhatetaṃ; mā maṃ etaṃ pucchī’’ti. Dutiyampi kho acelo seniyo…pe… tatiyampi kho acelo seniyo kukkuravatiko bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘ayaṃ, bhante, puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko. Tassa taṃ govataṃ dīgharattaṃ samattaṃ samādinnaṃ. Tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo’’ti?

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi.) 002
79.
“Well, Puṇṇa, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say: ‘Enough, Puṇṇa, let that be. Do not ask me that,’ I shall therefore answer you.

3. “Here, Puṇṇa, someone develops the dog-duty fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the dog-habit fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the dog-mind fully [388] and uninterruptedly; he develops dog-behaviour fully and uninterruptedly. Having done so, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of dogs. But if he has such a view as this: ‘By this virtue or observance or asceticism or holy life I shall become a [great] god or some [lesser] god,’ that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal realm. 006 So, Puṇṇa, if his dog-duty succeeds, it will lead him to the company of dogs; if it fails, it will lead him to hell.”

4. When this was said, Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic cried out and burst into tears. Then the Blessed One told Puṇṇa, son of the Koliyans, the ox-duty ascetic: “Puṇṇa, I could not persuade you when I said: ‘Enough, Puṇṇa, let that be. Do not ask me that.’” [Then Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic said:] “Venerable sir, I am not crying because the Blessed One has said this about me, but because I have long taken up and practised this dog-duty. Venerable sir, this Puṇṇa, son of the Koliyans, is an ox-duty ascetic. He has long taken up and practised that ox-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

“Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that.” A second time…And a third time Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic asked the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, this Puṇṇa, son of the Koliyans, is an ox-duty ascetic. He has long taken up and practised that ox-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
79. “富那,既然我說不要問這些事情你還是堅持要問,那麼我便為你解說吧。富那,一些全力、不間斷地修習狗戒,全力、不間斷地作出狗的行為,全力、不間斷地作出狗的心境,全力、不間斷地作出狗的模樣的人,在身壞命終之後會投生在狗的族類之中。

  “如果他心持這種見解: ‘我修持這種戒、這種信願、這種苦行或這種梵行,將會投生在某種天之中。’ 這種見解是一種邪見。富那,我說,邪見的人會在兩趣之一投生:地獄或畜生。

  “富那,狗戒修習完成,會投生為狗的族類;狗戒修習不完成,會投生地獄。”

  世尊說了這番話後,舍尼耶痛哭流淚。

  於是,世尊對富那說: “我已說過,不要問這些事情了。”

  舍尼耶對世尊說: “大德,我不單為世尊說到我的趣向而痛哭,還有為我長期修習、不斷修習狗戒而痛哭。大德,富那是持牛戒的,他長期修習、不斷修習牛戒,他的趣向怎麼樣,下一生將會怎麼樣呢?”

  “舍尼耶,不。不要問這些事情。”

  舍尼耶第二次對世尊說……   “舍尼耶,不。不要問這些事情。”

  舍尼耶第三次對世尊說: “大德,富那是持牛戒的,他長期修習、不斷修習牛戒,他的趣向怎麼樣,下一生將會怎麼樣呢?”

漢譯
(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)004
79.  「富樓那!我確實得不到[你的理解] 022 :『夠了!富樓那!隨它吧,請不要問我這個!』但,我仍將回答你。富樓那!這裡,某類人完全地、不間斷地修習狗戒,完全地、不間斷地修習狗習慣 023 ,完全地、不間斷地修習狗心,完全地、不間斷地修習狗行為,他完全地、不間斷地修習狗戒後,完全地、不間斷地修習狗習慣後,完全地、不間斷地修習狗心後,完全地、不間斷地修習狗行為後,以身體的崩解,死後往生到與狗為同伴,但,如果他是這麼見者:『我將以此行為、禁戒、苦行、梵行成為天神或某個天。』這是他的邪見。而,富樓那!對邪見者來說,我說,只有兩趣之一趣:地獄或畜生界,富樓那!像那樣,當[他的]狗戒成功時,他往生到與狗為同伴,當失敗時,則是地獄。」

  當這麼說時,守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶哭泣、持續落淚。

  那時,世尊對守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那這麼說:

  「富樓那!這是我沒得到你的理解:『夠了!富樓那!隨它吧,請不要問我這個!』」

  「大德!我不為世尊對我這麼說而哭泣,大德!而是為我的狗戒長時間完全地被受持。

  大德!這位守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那,他的那牛戒長時間完全地被受持,他的趣處是什麼?來世是什麼?」

  「夠了!斯尼耶!隨它吧,請不要問我這個!」

  第二次,守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶……(中略)。第三次,守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶對世尊這麼說:

  「大德!這位守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那,他的那牛戒長時間完全地被受持,他的趣處是什麼?來世是什麼?」

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
80. ‘‘Addhā kho te ahaṃ, seniya, na labhāmi. Alaṃ, seniya, tiṭṭhatetaṃ; mā maṃ etaṃ pucchīti; api ca tyāhaṃ byākarissāmi. Idha, seniya, ekacco govataṃ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, gosīlaṃ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, gocittaṃ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, gavākappaṃ gvākappaṃ (ka.) bhāveti paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ. So govataṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, gosīlaṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, gocittaṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ, gavākappaṃ bhāvetvā paripuṇṇaṃ abbokiṇṇaṃ kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā gunnaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjati. Sace kho panassa evaṃdiṭṭhi hoti – ‘imināhaṃ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā devo vā bhavissāmi devaññataro vā’ti , sāssa hoti micchādiṭṭhi. Micchādiṭṭhissa kho ahaṃ, seniya, dvinnaṃ gatīnaṃ aññataraṃ gatiṃ vadāmi – nirayaṃ vā tiracchānayoniṃ vā. Iti kho, seniya, sampajjamānaṃ govataṃ gunnaṃ sahabyataṃ upaneti, vipajjamānaṃ niraya’’nti. Evaṃ vutte, puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko parodi, assūni pavattesi.

Atha kho bhagavā acelaṃ seniyaṃ kukkuravatikaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘etaṃ kho te ahaṃ, seniya , nālatthaṃ. Alaṃ, seniya, tiṭṭhatetaṃ; mā maṃ etaṃ pucchī’’ti. ‘‘Nāhaṃ, bhante, etaṃ rodāmi yaṃ maṃ bhagavā evamāha; api ca me idaṃ, bhante, govataṃ dīgharattaṃ samattaṃ samādinnaṃ. Evaṃ pasanno ahaṃ, bhante, bhagavati; pahoti bhagavā tathā dhammaṃ desetuṃ yathā ahaṃ cevimaṃ govataṃ pajaheyyaṃ, ayañceva acelo seniyo kukkuravatiko taṃ kukkuravataṃ pajaheyyā’’ti. ‘‘Tena hi, puṇṇa, suṇāhi, sādhukaṃ manasi karohi, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko bhagavato paccassosi. Bhagavā etadavoca –

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi.) 002
80.“Well, Seniya, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say: ‘Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that,’ I shall therefore answer you.

5. “Here, Seniya, someone develops the ox-duty fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the ox-habit fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the ox-mind fully and uninterruptedly; he develops oxbehaviour fully and uninterruptedly. Having done so, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of oxen. [389] But if he has such a view as this: ‘By this virtue or observance or asceticism or holy life I shall become a [great] god or some [lesser] god,’ that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal realm. So, Seniya, if his ox-duty succeeds, it will lead him to the company of oxen; if it fails, it will lead him to hell.”

6. When this was said, Puṇṇa, son of the Koliyans, the ox-duty ascetic cried out and burst into tears.

Then the Blessed One told Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic: “Seniya, I could not persuade you when I said: ‘Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that.’” [Then Puṇṇathe ox-duty ascetic said:] “Venerable sir, I am not crying because the Blessed One has said this about me, but because I have long taken up and practised this ox-duty. Venerable sir, I have confidence in the Blessed One thus: ‘The Blessed One is capable of teaching me the Dhamma in such a way that I can abandon this ox-duty and that this Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic can abandon that dogduty.’” “Then, Puṇṇa, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”—“Yes, venerable sir,” he replied. The Blessed One said this:

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
80. “舍尼耶,既然我說不要問這些事情你還是堅持要問,那麼我便為你解說吧。舍尼耶,一些全力、不間斷地修習牛戒,全力、不間斷地作出牛的行為,全力、不間斷地作出牛的心境,全力、不間斷地作出牛的模樣的人,在身壞命終之後會投生在牛的族類之中。

  “如果他心持這種見解: ‘我修持這種戒、這種信願、這種苦行或這種梵行,將會投生在某種天之中。’ 這種見解是一種邪見。舍尼耶,我說,邪見的人會在兩趣之一投生:地獄或畜生。

  “舍尼耶,牛戒修習完成,會投生為牛的族類;牛戒修習不完成,會投生地獄。”

  世尊說了這番話後,富那痛哭流淚。

 

 

  於是,世尊對舍尼耶說: “我已說過,不要問這些事情了。”

  富那對世尊說: “大德,我不單為世尊說到我的趣向而痛哭,還有為我長期修習、不斷修習牛戒而痛哭。大德,我對世尊有淨信,知道世尊有能力為我說法,使我捨棄牛戒和使舍尼耶捨棄狗戒的。”

  “富那,既然這樣,你留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

  富那回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

漢譯
(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)004
80.  「斯尼耶!我確實得不到[你的理解]:『夠了!斯尼耶!隨它吧,請不要問我這個!』但,我仍將回答你。斯尼耶!這裡,某類人完全地、不間斷地修習牛戒,完全地、不間斷地修習牛習慣,完全地、不間斷地修習牛心,完全地、不間斷地修習牛行為,他完全地、不間斷地修習牛戒後,完全地、不間斷地修習牛習慣後,完全地、不間斷地修習牛心後,完全地、不間斷地修習牛行為後,以身體的崩解,死後往生到與牛為同伴,但,如果他是這麼見者:『我將以此行為、禁戒、苦行、梵行成為天神或某個天。』這是他的邪見。而,斯尼耶!對邪見者來說,我說,只有兩趣之一趣:地獄或畜生界,斯尼耶!像那樣,當[他的]牛戒成功時,他往生到與牛為同伴,當失敗時,則是地獄。」

  當這麼說時,守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那哭泣、持續落淚。

 

 

  那時,世尊對守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶這麼說:

  「斯尼耶!這是我沒得到你的理解:『夠了!斯尼耶!隨它吧,請不要問我這個!』」

  「大德!我不為世尊對我這麼說而哭泣,大德!而是為我的牛戒長時間完全地被受持。

  大德!我對世尊有這樣的淨信:世尊能夠教導我能捨斷這牛戒、這位守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶能捨斷那狗戒那樣的法。」

  「那樣的話,富樓那!你要聽 024 !你要好好作意 025 !我要說了。」

  「是的,大德!」守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那回答世尊。

  世尊這麼說:

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
81. ‘‘Cattārimāni, puṇṇa, kammāni mayā sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā paveditāni. Katamāni cattāri? Atthi, puṇṇa, kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇhavipākaṃ; atthi, puṇṇa, kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukkavipākaṃ; atthi, puṇṇa, kammaṃ kaṇhasukkaṃ kaṇhasukkavipākaṃ; atthi, puṇṇa, kammaṃ akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ akaṇhaasukkavipākaṃ, kammakkhayāya saṃvattati .

‘‘Katamañca, puṇṇa, kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇhavipākaṃ? Idha, puṇṇa, ekacco sabyābajjhaṃ sabyāpajjhaṃ (sī. syā. kaṃ.) kāyasaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti, sabyābajjhaṃ vacīsaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti, sabyābajjhaṃ manosaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti. So sabyābajjhaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhaṃ vacīsaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhaṃ manosaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. Tamenaṃ sabyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ samānaṃ sabyābajjhā phassā phusanti. So sabyābajjhehi phassehi phuṭṭho samāno sabyābajjhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti ekantadukkhaṃ, seyyathāpi sattā nerayikā . Iti kho, puṇṇa, bhūtā bhūtassa upapatti hoti; yaṃ karoti tena upapajjati, upapannamenaṃ phassā phusanti. Evaṃpāhaṃ, puṇṇa, ‘kammadāyādā sattā’ti vadāmi. Idaṃ vuccati, puṇṇa, kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇhavipākaṃ.

‘‘Katamañca, puṇṇa, kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukkavipākaṃ? Idha, puṇṇa, ekacco abyābajjhaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti, abyābajjhaṃ vacīsaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti, abyābajjhaṃ manosaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti. So abyābajjhaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā, abyābajjhaṃ vacīsaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā, abyābajjhaṃ manosaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā abyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. Tamenaṃ abyābajjhaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ samānaṃ abyābajjhā phassā phusanti. So abyābajjhehi phassehi phuṭṭho samāno abyābajjhaṃ vedanaṃ vedeti ekantasukhaṃ, seyyathāpi devā subhakiṇhā. Iti kho , puṇṇa, bhūtā bhūtassa upapatti hoti; yaṃ karoti tena upapajjati, upapannamenaṃ phassā phusanti. Evaṃpāhaṃ, puṇṇa, ‘kammadāyādā sattā’ti vadāmi. Idaṃ vuccati, puṇṇa, kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukkavipākaṃ.

‘‘Katamañca, puṇṇa, kammaṃ kaṇhasukkaṃ kaṇhasukkavipākaṃ? Idha, puṇṇa, ekacco sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi kāyasaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi vacīsaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi manosaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharoti. So sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi kāyasaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi vacīsaṅkhāraṃ abhiṅkharitvā, sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi manosaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkharitvā sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi lokaṃ upapajjati. Tamenaṃ sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi lokaṃ upapannaṃ samānaṃ sabyābajjhāpi abyābajjhāpi phassā phusanti. So sabyābajjhehipi abyābajjhehipi phassehi phuṭṭho samāno sabyābajjhampi abyābajjhampi vedanaṃ vedeti vokiṇṇasukhadukkhaṃ, seyyathāpi manussā ekacce ca devā ekacce ca vinipātikā. Iti kho, puṇṇa, bhūtā bhūtassa upapatti hoti; yaṃ karoti tena upapajjati. Upapannamenaṃ phassā phusanti. Evaṃpāhaṃ, puṇṇa, ‘kammadāyādā sattā’ti vadāmi. Idaṃ vuccati, puṇṇa, kammaṃ kaṇhasukkaṃ kaṇhasukkavipākaṃ.

‘‘Katamañca , puṇṇa, kammaṃ akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ akaṇhaasukkavipākaṃ, kammakkhayāya saṃvattati? Tatra, puṇṇa, yamidaṃ kammaṃ kaṇhaṃ kaṇhavipākaṃ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā, yamidaṃ yampidaṃ (sī. pī.) kammaṃ sukkaṃ sukkavipākaṃ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā, yamidaṃ yampidaṃ (sī. pī.) kammaṃ kaṇhasukkaṃ kaṇhasukkavipākaṃ tassa pahānāya yā cetanā – idaṃ vuccati, puṇṇa, kammaṃ akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ akaṇhaasukkavipākaṃ, kammakkhayāya saṃvattatīti. Imāni kho, puṇṇa, cattāri kammāni mayā sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā paveditānī’’ti.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi.) 002

81.
7. “Puṇṇa, there are four kinds of action proclaimed by me after realising them for myself with direct knowledge. What are the four? There is dark action with dark result; there is bright action with bright result; there is dark-and-bright action with dark-and-bright result; and there is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither-dark-norbright result, action that leads to the destruction of action.

8. “And what, Puṇṇa, is dark action with dark result? Here someone generates an afflictive bodily formation, an afflictive verbal formation, an afflictive mental formation. 007 Having generated an afflictive bodily formation, an afflictive verbal formation, an afflictive mental formation, he reappears in an afflictive world. 008 When he has reappeared in an afflictive world, afflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by afflictive contacts, he feels afflictive feelings, exclusively painful, as in the case of the beings in [390] hell. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being: 009 one reappears through the actions one has performed. When one has reappeared, contacts touch one. Thus I say beings are the heirs of their actions. This is called dark action with dark result.

9. “And what, Puṇṇa, is bright action with bright result? Here someone generates an unafflictive bodily formation, an unafflictive verbal formation, an unafflictive mental formation. 010 Having generated an unafflictive bodily formation, an unafflictive verbal formation, an unafflictive mental formation, he reappears in an unafflictive world. 011 When he has reappeared in an unafflictive world, unafflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by unafflictive contacts, he feels unafflictive feelings, exclusively pleasant, as in the case of the gods of Refulgent Glory. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being; one reappears through the actions one has performed. When one has reappeared, contacts touch one. Thus I say beings are the heirs of their actions. This is called bright action with bright result.

10. “And what, Puṇṇa, is dark-and-bright action with dark-and-bright result? Here someone generates a bodily formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive, a verbal formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive, a mental formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive. 012 Having generated a bodily formation, a verbal formation, a mental formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive, he reappears in a world that is both afflictive and unafflictive. When he has reappeared in a world that is both afflictive and unafflictive, both afflictive and unafflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by both afflictive and unafflictive contacts, he feels both afflictive and unafflictive feelings, mingled pleasure and pain, as in the case of human beings and some gods and some beings in the lower worlds. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being: one reappears through the actions one has performed. When one has reappeared, contacts touch one. Thus I say beings are the heirs to their actions. This is called dark-andbright action with dark-and-bright result. [391]

11. “And what, Puṇṇa, is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither-dark-nor-bright result, action that leads to the destruction of action? Therein, the volition for abandoning the kind of action that is dark with dark result, and the volition for abandoning the kind of action that is bright with bright result, and the volition for abandoning the kind of action that is dark and bright with dark-and-bright result: this is called action that is neither dark nor bright with neither-dark-nor-bright result, action that leads to the destruction of action. 013 These are the four kinds of action proclaimed by me after realising them for myself with direct knowledge.”

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
81. “富那,我親身證得無比智,然後宣說四種業。這四種業是什麼呢?帶來黑報的黑業;帶來白報的白業;帶來黑白報的黑白業;既不帶來黑報也不帶來白報的業,是帶來業盡的業。

 

“富那,什麼是帶來黑報的黑業呢?一些人常做苦迫的身行、苦迫的口行、苦迫的意行。因他們常做苦迫的身、口、意行,之後便會投生在一個苦迫的世間之中,在那裏接觸苦迫的事物。因他們接觸苦迫的事物,所以帶來唯苦無樂的苦迫感受,就正如地獄的眾生那樣。

  “富那, ‘有’ 是因為過往的有而生,是因為過往所做的行為而生;生了之後,便會領受各種觸。富那,因為這樣,所以我說,眾生是業的繼承者。富那,這就是所說的帶來黑報的黑業了。

 

“富那,什麼是帶來白報的白業呢?一些人常做平和的身行、平和的口行、平和的意行。因他們常做平和的身、口、意行,之後便會投生在一個平和的世間之中,在那裏接觸平和的事物。因他們接觸平和的事物,所以帶來唯樂無苦的平和感受,就正如遍淨天那樣。

  “富那, ‘有’ 是因為過往的有而生,是因為過往所做的行為而生;生了之後,便會領受各種觸。富那,因為這樣,所以我說,眾生是業的繼承者。富那,這就是所說的帶來白報的白業了。

 

“富那,什麼是帶來黑白報的黑白業呢?一些人常做苦迫的身行也常做平和的身行,常做苦迫的口行也常做平和的口行,常做苦迫的意行也常做平和的意行。因他們常做苦迫的身、口、意行,也常做平和的身、口、意行,之後便會投生在一個既有苦迫也有平和的世間之中,在那裏既接觸苦迫的事物也接觸平和的事物。因他們既接觸苦迫的事物也接觸平和的事物,所以帶來苦樂夾雜的感受,就正如一些人、一些天、一些惡趣眾生那樣。

  “富那, ‘有’ 是因為過往的有而生,是因為過往所做的行為而生;生了之後,便會領受各種觸。富那,因為這樣,所以我說,眾生是業的繼承者。富那,這就是所說的帶來黑白報的黑白業了。

 

“富那,什麼是既不帶來黑報也不帶來白報的業,是帶來業盡的業呢?無論任何帶來黑報的黑業,都立心捨棄它;無論任何帶來白報的白業,都立心捨棄它;無論任何帶來黑白報的黑白業,都立心捨棄它。富那,這就是所說的既不帶來黑報也不帶來白報的業,是帶來業盡的業了。

  “富那,這就是我親身證得無比智,然後宣說的四種業了。”

漢譯
(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)004
81.  「富樓那!有被我以證智 026 自作證後教導的這四種業,哪四種呢?富樓那!有黑果報的黑業,富樓那!有白果報的白業,富樓那!有黑白果報的黑白業,富樓那!有導向業的滅盡之非黑非白果報的非黑非白業。

  富樓那!什麼是有黑果報的黑業呢?富樓那!這裡,某人為作有瞋恚的身行,為作有瞋恚的語行,為作有瞋恚的意行 027 ,他為作有瞋恚的身行後,為作有瞋恚的語行後,為作有瞋恚的意行後,往生到有瞋恚的世界,當往生到有瞋恚的世界時,有瞋恚的觸 028 接觸他,當他被有瞋恚的觸接觸時,感受有瞋恚的、一向 029 苦的感受,猶如地獄的眾生。富樓那!像這樣,生類的往生是因生類自己,由其所作而往生,被往生後,觸接觸他,富樓那!這樣,我說眾生是[自己]業的繼承者。富樓那!這被稱為有黑果報的黑業。

  富樓那!什麼是有白果報的白業呢?富樓那!這裡,某人為作無瞋恚的身行,為作無瞋恚的語行,為作無瞋恚的意行,他為作無瞋恚的身行後,為作無瞋恚的語行後,為作無瞋恚的意行後,往生到無瞋恚的世界,當往生到無瞋恚的世界時,無瞋恚的觸接觸他,當他被無瞋恚的觸接觸時,感受無瞋恚的、一向樂的感受,猶如遍淨天的天神。富樓那!像這樣,生類的往生是因生類自己,由其所作而往生,被往生後,觸接觸他,富樓那!這樣,我說眾生是[自己]業的繼承者。富樓那!這被稱為有白果報的白業。

  富樓那!什麼是有黑白果報的黑白業呢?富樓那!這裡,某人為作有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的身行,為作有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的語行,為作有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的意行,他為作有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的身行後,為作有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的語行後,為作有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的意行後,往生到有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的世界,當往生到有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的世界時,有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的觸接觸他,當他被有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的觸接觸時,感受有瞋恚的與無瞋恚的、混合了樂與苦的感受,猶如人、某些天神、某些墮惡處者。富樓那!像這樣,生類的往生是因生類自己,由其所作而往生,被往生後,觸接觸他,富樓那!這樣,我說眾生是[自己]業的繼承者。富樓那!這被稱為有黑白果報的黑白業。

  富樓那!什麼是導向業的滅盡之非黑非白果報的非黑非白業呢?富樓那!在這裡,凡為了捨斷這有黑果報的黑業之思 030 ,凡為了捨斷這有白果報的白業之思,凡為了捨斷這有黑白果報的黑白業之思,富樓那!這被稱為導向業的滅盡之非黑非白果報的非黑非白業。富樓那!這些是被我以證智自作證後教導的四種業。」

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
82. Evaṃ vutte, puṇṇo koliyaputto govatiko bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante! Seyyathāpi, bhante…pe… upāsakaṃ maṃ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gata’’nti. Acelo pana seniyo kukkuravatiko bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante! Seyyathāpi, bhante…pe… pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Labheyyāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, labheyyaṃ upasampada’’nti. ‘‘Yo kho, seniya , aññatitthiyapubbo imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhati pabbajjaṃ, ākaṅkhati upasampadaṃ so cattāro māse parivasati. Catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti, upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Api ca mettha puggalavemattatā viditā’’ti.

‘‘Sace, bhante, aññatitthiyapubbā imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhantā pabbajjaṃ ākaṅkhantā upasampadaṃ te cattāro māse parivasanti catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya, ahaṃ cattāri vassāni parivasissāmi. Catunnaṃ vassānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājentu, upasampādentu bhikkhubhāvāyā’’ti. Alattha kho acelo seniyo kukkuravatiko bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, alattha upasampadaṃ. Acirūpasampanno kho panāyasmā seniyo eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto nacirasseva – yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti tadanuttaraṃ – brahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññāsi. Aññataro kho panāyasmā seniyo arahataṃ ahosīti.

Kukkuravatikasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ sattamaṃ.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi.) 002

82.
12. When this was said, Puṇṇa, son of the Koliyans, the ox-duty ascetic said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Blessed One has made the Dhamma clear in many ways…From today let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

13. But Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Blessed One has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to the Blessed One for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. I would receive the going forth under the Blessed One, I would receive the full admission.”

14. “Seniya, one who formerly belonged to another sect and desires the going forth and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline lives on probation for four months. 014 At the end of four months, if the bhikkhus are satisfied with him, they give him the going forth and the full admission to the bhikkhus’ state. But I recognise individual differences in this matter.” 015

 

“Venerable sir, if those who formerly belonged to another sect and desire the going forth and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline live on probation for four months, and if at the end of the four months the bhikkhus being satisfied with them give them the going forth and the full admission to the bhikkhus’ state, then I will live on probation for four years. At the end of the four years if the bhikkhus are satisfied with me, let them give me the going forth and the full admission to the bhikkhus’ state.”

15. Then Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic received the going forth under the Blessed One, and he received the full admission. And soon, not long after his full admission, dwelling alone, withdrawn, [392] diligent, ardent, and resolute, the venerable Seniya, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, here and now entered upon and abided in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. He directly knew: “Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.” And the venerable Seniya became one of the arahants.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003

82. 世尊說了這番話後,富那對他說: “大德,妙極了!大德,妙極了!世尊能以各種不同的方式來演說法義,就像把倒轉了的東西反正過來;像為受覆蓋的東西揭開遮掩;像為迷路者指示正道;像在黑暗中拿著油燈的人,使其他有眼睛的人可以看見東西。我皈依世尊、皈依法、皈依比丘僧。願世尊接受我為優婆塞,從現在起,直至命終,終生皈依!”

  舍尼耶對世尊說: “大德,妙極了!大德,妙極了!世尊能以各種不同的方式來演說法義,就像把倒轉了的東西反正過來;像為受覆蓋的東西揭開遮掩;像為迷路者指示正道;像在黑暗中拿著油燈的人,使其他有眼睛的人可以看見東西。大德,我皈依世尊、皈依法、皈依比丘僧。願我能在世尊的座下出家,願我能受具足戒。”

  “舍尼耶,以前曾是外道的人,想在這裏的法和律之中出家和受具足戒,是需要接受四個月觀察期的;過了四個月,比丘滿意的話,便接受他出家,授與他具足戒,讓他成為一位比丘。然而,每個人都不同,有些人是可以豁免的。”

 

“大德,如果外道需要接受四個月觀察期的話,我可以接受四年觀察期,過了四年,比丘滿意的話,便接受我出家,授與我具足戒,讓我成為一位比丘。”

  舍尼耶得到世尊允許,即時在世尊座下出家,受具足戒。受具足戒不久,舍尼耶尊者獨處、遠離、不放逸、勤奮、專心一意,不久便親身以無比智來體證這義理,然後安住在證悟之中。在家庭生活的人,出家過沒有家庭的生活,就是為了在現生之中完滿梵行,達成這個無上的目標。他自己知道:生已經盡除,梵行已經達成,應要做的已經做完,沒有下一生。舍尼耶尊者成為另一位阿羅漢。

狗戒經 (kukkuravatikasuttaṃ) 第七 完

漢譯
(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)004

82.  當這麼說時,守牛戒的拘利族人之子富樓那對世尊這麼說:   「大德!太偉大了,大德!太偉大了,大德!猶如……(中略:能扶正顛倒的,能顯現被隱藏的,能告知迷途者的路,能在黑暗中持燈火:『有眼者看得見諸色』。同樣的,法被世尊以種種法門說明。)請世尊記得我為優婆塞 031 ,從今天起終生歸依 032 。」

  守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶對世尊這麼說:

  「大德!太偉大了,大德!太偉大了,大德!猶如……(中略……世尊以種種法門)說明。大德!我歸依 033 世尊、法、比丘僧團 034 ,大德!願我得在世尊面前出家,願我得受具足戒 035 。」

  「斯尼耶!凡先前為其他外道者,希望在這法、律中出家;希望受具足戒,他要滿四個月別住 036 。經四個月後,獲得比丘們同意,令他出家受具足戒成為比丘,但個別例外由我確認。」

 

  

「大德!如果先前為其他外道者,希望在這法、律中出家;希望受具足戒,要滿四個月別住。經四個月後獲得比丘們同意,令他出家受具足戒成為比丘,我將四年別住,經四年後,獲得比丘們同意,使我出家受具足戒成為比丘。」

  守狗戒的裸體斯尼耶得到在世尊的面前出家、受具足戒。

  受具足戒後不久,當尊者 037 斯尼耶住於獨處、隱退、不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,不久,以證智 038 自作證後,在當生中進入後住於 039 那善男子 040 之所以從在家而正確地出家,成為非家生活 041 的梵行無上目標,他證知:「出生已盡 042 ,梵行已完成 043 ,應該作的已作 044 ,不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態 045 了。」

守狗戒者經第七終了。


備註:

〔註001〕 巴利原典乃參考【國際內觀中心】(Vipassana Meditation, As Taught By S.N. Goenka in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin)所發行之《第六次結集》(巴利大藏經) CSCD(Chattha Sangayana CD)。網路版請參考: http://www.tipitaka.org/ (請選 Roman→Web → Tipiṭaka (Mūla) → Suttapiṭaka → Majjhimanikāya → Majjhimapaṇṇāsapāḷi → 1. Gahapativaggo → 7. Kukkuravatikasuttaṃ )。

〔註002〕英譯為 Ven. Bodhi Bhikkhu所譯(Translated by Ven. Bodhi Bhikkhu);請參考:THE MIDDLE LENGTH DISCOURSES OF THE BUDDHA - SELECTIONS 57. Kukkuravatika Sutta: The Dog-Duty Ascetic
*** "This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License." ***

〔註003〕 本譯文請參考:《狗戒經》;蕭式球譯;《巴利文翻譯組學報》第七期, Pp. 121 (2009.7月, ISBN 978-962-7714-52-1);編輯:志蓮淨苑文化部;出版:志蓮淨苑;地址香港九龍鑽石山志蓮道五號;www.chilin.org;網路版請參考: 巴利文佛典選譯(香港 志蓮淨苑文化部--佛學園圃--5. 南傳佛教之 5.1.2.057 五十七.狗戒經)

〔註004〕 本譯文請參考:中部57經/守狗戒者經(屋主品[6])(莊春江譯)。 莊春江工作站中部 → 57

〔註005〕 MA: Puṇṇa wore horns on his head, tied a tail to his backside, and went about eating grass together with the cows. Seniya performed all the actions typical of a dog.

〔註006〕 It should be noted that a wrong ascetic practice has less severe consequences when it is undertaken without wrong view than when it is accompanied by wrong view. Although few nowadays will take up the dog-duty practice, many other deviant lifestyles have become widespread, and to the extent that these are justified by a wrong view, their consequences become that much more harmful.

〔註007〕 Sabyābajjhaṁ kāyasankhāraṁ (vacīsankhārȧ, manosankhāraṁ ) abhisankharoti. Here an “afflictive bodily formation” may be understood as the volition responsible for the three courses of unwholesome bodily action; an “afflictive verbal formation” as the volition responsible for the four courses of unwholesome verbal action; and an “afflictive mental formation” as the volition responsible for the three courses of unwholesome mental action. See MN 9.4.

〔註008〕 He is reborn in one of the states of deprivation—hell, the animal kingdom, or the realm of ghosts.

〔註009〕 Bhūtābhūtassa upapatti hoti. MA: Beings are reborn through the actions they perform and in ways conforming to those actions. The implications of this thesis are explored more fully in MN 135 and MN 136.

〔註010〕 Here the volitions responsible for the ten courses of wholesome action, together with the volitions of the jhānas, are intended.

〔註011〕 He is reborn in a heavenly world.

〔註012〕 Strictly speaking, no volitional action can be simultaneously both wholesome and unwholesome, for the volition responsible for the action must be either one or the other. Thus here we should understand that the being engages in a medley of wholesome and unwholesome actions, none of which is particularly dominant.

〔註013〕 MA: This is the volition of the four supramundane paths culminating in arahantship. Although the arahant performs deeds, his deeds no longer have any kammic potency to generate new existence or to bring forth results even in the present existence.

〔註014〕 MA explains that pabbajjā, the going forth, is mentioned here only in a loose figure of speech. In actual fact, he receives the going forth before the probationary period and then lives on probation for four months before being entitled to receive upasampadā, full admission to the Sangha.

〔註015〕 MA: The Buddha can decide: “This person must live on probation, this one need not live on probation.”

〔註016〕 「如是我聞(SA/DA);我聞如是(MA);聞如是(AA)」,南傳作「我聽到這樣」(Evaṃ me sutaṃ,直譯為「這樣被我聽聞」,忽略文法則為「如是-我-聞」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「我聽到這樣」(Thus have I heard)。 「如是我聞……歡喜奉行。」的經文格式,依印順法師的考定,這樣的格式,應該是在《增一阿含》或《增支部》成立的時代才形成的(參看《原始佛教聖典之集成》p.9),南傳《相應部》多數經只簡略地指出發生地點,應該是比較早期的風貌。

〔註017〕 「一時」,南傳作「有一次」(ekaṃ samayaṃ,直譯為「一時」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「有一次」(On one occasion)。

〔註018〕 「世尊;眾祐」(bhagavā,音譯為「婆伽婆;婆伽梵;薄伽梵」,義譯為「有幸者」,古譯為「尊祐」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「幸福者」(the Blessed One)。

〔註019〕 「問訊,接著……」(abhivādetvā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「對……表示敬意;行屬臣的禮儀」(pay homage to)。按:「問訊」(abhivādeti),另譯為「敬禮;禮拜」。

〔註020〕 「大德!」(bhante),菩提比丘長老英譯為「值得尊敬的尊長」(venerable sir)。

〔註021〕 「隨它吧」(tiṭṭhatetaṃ,直譯為「存續它」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「隨它吧;讓它去吧(別理它)」(let that be, let it be)。

〔註022〕 「我確實得不到[你的理解]」(Addhā kho tyāhaṃ……na labhāmi),菩提比丘長老英譯為「由於我確實不能說服你」(since I certainly cannot persuade you),或「我確實沒使你瞭解」(Surely……I am not getting through to you, SN.42.2)。

〔註023〕 「狗習慣」(kukkurasīlaṃ,另譯為「狗戒」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「狗習慣」(the dog-habit)。按:「習慣」(sīlaṃ),另譯為「戒;戒行;道德」。

〔註024〕 「諦聽!」,南傳作「你們要聽!」(suṇātha),菩提比丘長老英譯為「聽!」(listen)。

〔註025〕 「善思;善思念之」,南傳作「你們要好好作意」(sādhukaṃ manasi karotha,直譯為「你們要善(十分地)作意」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「仔細注意」(attend closely)。「作意」(manasikaroti)為「意」與「作」的複合詞,可以是「注意」,也可以有「思惟」的意思。

〔註026〕 「證智」(abhiñña),菩提比丘長老英譯為「直接的理解」(direct knowledge)。

〔註027〕 「意行」,南傳作「意行」(manosaṅkhāro)或「心行」(cittasaṅkhāro),菩提比丘長老認為兩者是同義詞而都英譯為「精神的意志形成」(the mental volitional formation)。

〔註028〕 「觸(SA);更樂(MA/AA)」,南傳作「觸」(samphassa或phassa),此「觸」即「十二緣起支」中「六入緣『觸』,『觸』緣受」的「觸支」,指認識外境到進入對自己有意義的程度,而「接觸」(phuṭṭhassa或phusati),則是指一般有形或無形的接觸,兩者中、英譯都慣用同一字「接觸」(contact),易混淆。

〔註029〕 「一向的」(ekanta, ekaṃso,另譯為「單一的;專門的」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「只限;唯有」(exclusively),或「絕對地」(categorically),或「片面的;單方面的」(one-sided)。

〔註030〕 「思」(cetanā,另譯為「意思;意圖」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「意志力」(volition)。

〔註031〕 「清信士(AA);優婆塞」(upāsaka),菩提比丘長老英譯為「男性俗人信奉者」(male lay follower),也就是「男性在家佛弟子」。

〔註032〕 「盡壽歸依」(SA另譯為「盡形壽歸依;盡其形壽歸依」)、「終身自歸」(MA),南傳作「終生歸依」(pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gatanti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「前往終生依靠」(who has gone to refuge for life)。

〔註033〕 「自歸;自歸命(AA)」,南傳作「歸依」(saraṇaṃ gacchāmi),菩提比丘長老英譯為「我前往依靠」(I go for refuge to)。

〔註034〕 「歸依僧;自歸於比丘眾;歸比丘眾;歸比丘僧;聖眾」,南傳作「歸依比丘僧團」(saraṇaṃ gacchāmi…bhikkhusaṅghañca),菩提比丘長老英譯為「我前往依靠僧團」(I go for refuge to saṅgha)。「僧」實為「僧伽」(saṅgha)的簡略,意譯為「眾;和合眾」,指的是「團體」,而非任何「個人」。

〔註035〕 「受具足;已受具足戒的」(upasampanna),菩提比丘長老英譯為「已受戒者」(who has been ordained)。「得受具足戒」(alattha upasampadaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「領受更高的授任」(received the higher ordination)。「使受具足戒」(upasampādeti,使役動詞),菩提比丘長老英譯為「給予完全的授任」(give full ordination)。

〔註036〕 「滿四個月別住」之規制,如《摩訶僧祇律》所記載:「若外道來欲出家者,當共住試之四月。」(《大正》22.420.3),但也有世尊即刻同意的,如《雜阿含102經》所述。

〔註037〕 「尊者」(āyasmā, āyasmant,另譯為「具壽」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「尊敬的」(Venerable)。

〔註038〕 「證智」(abhiñña),菩提比丘長老英譯為「直接的理解」(direct knowledge)。

〔註039〕 「具足住(SA);成就遊(MA);自遊戲;自娛樂;自遊化(DA/AA)」,南傳作「進入後住於」(upasampajja viharanti,逐字直譯為「具足住」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「進入及住在」(enter and dwell in)。

〔註040〕 「善男子」(kulaputta, kolaputti,另譯為「良家子」、「族姓子」、「族姓男」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「族人」(clansmen),應是指來自大姓人家之男子。

〔註041〕 「信家非家出家;正信非家出家;至信捨家無家(MA)」,南傳作「由於信,從在家出家,成為非家生活」(saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā,逐字直譯為「信家非家出家」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「他出於信仰,從有家生活外出(出家)進入無家者」(who have gone forth from the household life into homelessness out of faith, who has gone forth out of faith from the household life into homelessness)。

〔註042〕 「我生已盡(SA);生已盡(MA);生死已盡(DA/AA)」,南傳作「出生已盡」(khīṇā jāti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「已被破壞的是出生;出生已被破壞」(destroyed is birth)。

〔註043〕 「梵行已立」,南傳作「梵行已完成」(vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「聖潔的生活已被生活」(the holy life has been lived)。

〔註044〕 「所作已作(SA);所作已辦(MA/AA/DA)」,南傳作「應該作的已作」(kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, katakicco, Kataṃ kiccaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「所有必須作的已經做完」(what had to be done has been done),或「已經完成他的任務」(has done his task, AN.3.58),或「任務已經完成」(Done is the task, AN.4.4)。

〔註045〕 「自知不受後有(SA);不更受有(MA);不受後有/更不受有(DA);更不復受有/更不復受胎(AA)」,南傳作「不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態」(nāparaṃ itthattāyā),相當於「不受後有」,菩提比丘長老英譯為「不再有這生命的狀態」(there is no more for this state of being),另外也與「不再有再生」的意義相當。按:「不受後有」,意思是沒有下一生的「有」,而這個「有」應該是「十二緣起支」中的「有」支。


資訊更新日期: 01.11, 佛曆 (BE) 2558;
(西元 CE 2015)

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