中部 60 無疑經(無諍經, 無戲論經)
(MN 60 Apannaka Sutta)
(A Safe Bet)
對讀


巴利原典
(CSCD)001
Apaṇṇakasuttaṃ
92. Evaṃ me sutaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kosalesu cārikaṃ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena sālā nāma kosalānaṃ brāhmaṇagāmo tadavasari. Assosuṃ kho sāleyyakā brāhmaṇagahapatikā – ‘‘samaṇo khalu bho gotamo sakyaputto sakyakulā pabbajito kosalesu cārikaṃ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ sālaṃ anuppatto. Taṃ kho pana bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ evaṃ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato – ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti. So imaṃ lokaṃ sadevakaṃ samārakaṃ sabrahmakaṃ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṃ pajaṃ sadevamanussaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Sādhu kho pana tathārūpānaṃ arahataṃ dassanaṃ hotī’’ti. Atha kho sāleyyakā brāhmaṇagahapatikā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā appekacce bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Appekacce bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodiṃsu; sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Appekacce yena bhagavā tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Appekacce bhagavato santike nāmagottaṃ sāvetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Appekacce tuṇhībhūtā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
92. I have heard that on one occasion, when the Blessed One was on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, he arrived at the brahman village called Sala. The brahman householders heard, "Master Gotama the contemplative — the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan — on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks — has arrived at Sala. And of that master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: 'He is indeed a Blessed One, an arahant, rightly self-awakened: consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known — having realized it through direct knowledge — this world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & brahmans, their rulers & common people. He has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.'"

So the brahman householders of Sala went to the Blessed One. On arrival, some of them bowed down to the Blessed One and sat to one side. Some of them exchanged courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. Some of them sat to one side having saluted him with their hands palm-to-palm over their hearts. Some of them sat to one side having announced their name & clan. Some of them sat to one side in silence.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
92.  這是我所聽見的:

  有一次,世尊和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起,在拘薩羅遊行說法,去到一個名叫娑羅村的婆羅門村落及住在那裏。

  娑羅村的婆羅門居士聽到這個消息: “喬答摩沙門是釋迦族人,從釋迦族出家,他和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起,在拘薩羅遊行說法,現在來到這裏了。喬答摩賢者聲名遠播,是一位阿羅漢.等正覺.明行具足.善逝.世間解.無上士.調御者.天人師.佛.世尊。他親身證得無比智,然後在這個有天神、魔羅、梵天、沙門、婆羅門、國王、眾人的世間宣說法義,所說的法義開首、中間、結尾都是善美的,有意義、有好的言辭、圓滿、清淨、開示梵行。去看這樣的阿羅漢是很有益處的。”

  於是,娑羅村的婆羅門居士一起前往世尊那裏,到了之後,一些人對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊;一些人和世尊互相問候,作了一些悅意的交談,然後坐在一邊;一些人向世尊合掌,然後坐在一邊;一些人在世尊跟前報上自己的名字和族姓,然後坐在一邊;一些人保持靜默,然後坐在一邊。

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
第六十 無戲論經
  92.  如是我聞。

  一時,世尊遊行於拘薩羅國,與大比丘家俱行,至名謂薩羅之拘薩羅人婆羅門 村。薩羅村之婆羅門居士眾如是聞:「實釋迦族子,由釋迦族人出家之沙門瞿曇,遊
401 行於拘薩羅國中,與大比丘家俱行至薩羅村。彼尊者瞿曇有如是善美高揚之大名聲; 即:「如是,彼世尊為應供、等正覺者、明行足、善逝、世間解、無上士、調御丈 夫、天人師、佛、世尊也。」彼於此天、魔、梵天之世界、於沙門、婆羅門、天、 人眾中之人人,自知自證已而教導之。彼說初善、中善、後善,有義、有文之法, 顯示完全具足圓滿清淨之梵行。見如是之阿羅漢為甚幸也」。

於是,薩羅村之婆羅門眾詣世尊處。詣已,或者敬禮世尊坐於一面,或者向世 尊問訊,交換友誼禮讓之語坐於一面,或者向世尊合掌坐於一面,或者於世尊面前 自報姓名而坐於一面,或者默然坐於一面。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
93. Ekamantaṃ nisinne kho sāleyyake brāhmaṇagahapatike bhagavā etadavoca – ‘‘atthi pana vo, gahapatayo, koci manāpo satthā yasmiṃ vo ākāravatī saddhā paṭiladdhā’’ti? ‘‘Natthi kho no, bhante, koci manāpo satthā yasmiṃ no ākāravatī saddhā paṭiladdhā’’ti. ‘‘Manāpaṃ vo, gahapatayo, satthāraṃ alabhantehi ayaṃ apaṇṇako dhammo samādāya vattitabbo. Apaṇṇako hi, gahapatayo, dhammo samatto samādinno, so vo bhavissati dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya. Katamo ca, gahapatayo, apaṇṇako dhammo’’?
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
93. As they were sitting there, the Blessed One asked them, "Householders, is there any teacher agreeable to you, in whom you have found grounded conviction?"

"No, lord, there is no teacher agreeable to us, in whom we have found grounded conviction."

"As you have not found an agreeable teacher, you should adopt and practice this safe-bet teaching, for this safe-bet teaching — when accepted and adopted — will be to your long-term welfare & happiness.

"And what is the safe-bet teaching?

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
93.  世尊對他們說:

  “居士們,你們有沒有任何一位喜歡的、對他有理性敬信的導師呢?”

  “大德,我們沒有喜歡的、對他有理性敬信的導師。”

  “居士們,既然你們沒有喜歡的導師的話,便應著手修習這種無諍之法。居士們,著手修習這種無諍之法,將會為你們長期帶來利益和快樂。

  “居士們,什麼是無諍之法呢?

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
93.  世尊對坐於一面之薩羅村婆羅門居士眾 曰:「居士等!然汝等可有任何適意之師,對彼,汝等已獲得理性之信耶?」[彼等
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一五五 ~ 一五六)
曰:]「尊者!我等無任何過意之師,對彼,我等已獲得理性之信也。」[世尊:] 「居士等!汝等不得過意之師,宜遂行受特此 012 無戲論法。汝居士等!若完成正持無 戲論法者,彼當長夜安穩與幸福。居士等!其無戲論法為何耶?」

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
94. ‘‘Santi , gahapatayo, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi dinnaṃ, natthi yiṭṭhaṃ, natthi hutaṃ; natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṃ [sukaṭadukkaṭānaṃ (sī. syā. kaṃ. pī.)] kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, natthi ayaṃ loko, natthi paro loko; natthi mātā, natthi pitā; natthi sattā opapātikā; natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā [samaggatā (ka.)] sammā paṭipannā ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. Tesaṃyeva kho, gahapatayo, samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ujuvipaccanīkavādā. Te evamāhaṃsu – ‘atthi dinnaṃ, atthi yiṭṭhaṃ, atthi hutaṃ; atthi sukatadukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko; atthi ayaṃ loko, atthi paro loko; atthi mātā, atthi pitā; atthi sattā opapātikā; atthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammā paṭipannā ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, gahapatayo – ‘nanume samaṇabrāhmaṇā aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā’’’ti? ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
94.

Existence & non-existence

A. "There are some contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view: 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no brahmans or contemplatives who, faring rightly and practicing rightly, proclaim this world and the next after having directly known and realized it for themselves.' 005

B. "Some contemplatives & brahmans, speaking in direct opposition to those contemplatives & brahmans, say this: 'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are contemplatives & brahmans who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.'

"What do you think, householders? Don't these contemplatives & brahmans speak in direct opposition to each other?"

"Yes, lord."

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
94.  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門這樣說,他們持這種見解: ‘沒有布施;沒有祭祀;沒有祭品;沒有苦樂業的果報;沒有今生;沒有他世;沒有父恩;沒有母恩;沒有化生的眾生;在世上沒有進入正道、完滿修行的沙門婆羅門,親身以無比智證得有今生和他世。’

  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門則完全相反,他們這樣說: ‘有布施;有祭祀;有祭品;有苦樂業的果報;有今生;有他世;有父恩;有母恩;有化生的眾生;在世上有進入正道、完滿修行的沙門婆羅門,親身以無比智證得有今生和他世。’

  “居士們,你們認為怎樣,這些沙門婆羅門互相之間是不是完全相反呢?”

  “大德,是的。”

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
94.  居士等!有一類沙門、婆羅門為如是說者、如是見者:「無 013 布施、無供犧牲、 無供養,無諸善惡業、無果報,無此世界、他世界,無父、無母,無化生有情,於 世間無沙門、婆羅門之正行、正行道者,自己依通智自作證而教化此世界、他世界。」 居士等!彼等對沙門、婆羅門,另有一類沙門、婆羅門正為反對之說,彼等言:「有
402 布施,有供犧牲,有供養,有善惡業、果報,有此世界,有他世界、有父、有母, 有化生有情;于世間有沙門、婆羅門之正行、正行道者,自己依通智自作證而教化 此世界、他世界。居士等!……對此汝作何思耶?非此等沙門、婆羅門為相互反對 之說耶?」[居士等:]「然也,尊者!」

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
95. ‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi dinnaṃ, natthi yiṭṭhaṃ…pe… ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti tesametaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ? Yamidaṃ [yadidaṃ (ka.)] kāyasucaritaṃ, vacīsucaritaṃ, manosucaritaṃ – ime tayo kusale dhamme abhinivajjetvā [abhinibbajjetvā (syā. kaṃ.), abhinibbijjitvā (ka.)] yamidaṃ [yadidaṃ (ka.)] kāyaduccaritaṃ, vacīduccaritaṃ, manoduccaritaṃ – ime tayo akusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Na hi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā passanti akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ vodānapakkhaṃ. Santaṃyeva pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘natthi paro loko’ tissa diṭṭhi hoti; sāssa hoti micchādiṭṭhi. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘natthi paro loko’ti saṅkappeti; svāssa hoti micchāsaṅkappo. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘natthi paro loko’ti vācaṃ bhāsati; sāssa hoti micchāvācā. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘natthi paro loko’ti āha; ye te arahanto paralokaviduno tesamayaṃ paccanīkaṃ karoti. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘natthi paro loko’ti paraṃ saññāpeti [paññāpeti (ka.)]; sāssa hoti asaddhammasaññatti [assaddhammapaññatti (ka.)]. Tāya ca pana asaddhammasaññattiyā attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. Iti pubbeva kho panassa susīlyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, dussīlyaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ – ayañca micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā ariyānaṃ paccanīkatā asaddhammasaññatti attukkaṃsanā paravambhanā. Evamassime [evaṃ’si’me’ (sī. syā. kaṃ. pī.)] aneke pāpakā akusalā dhammā sambhavanti micchādiṭṭhipaccayā.

‘‘Tatra , gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘sace kho natthi paro loko evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā sotthimattānaṃ karissati; sace kho atthi paro loko evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjissati. Kāmaṃ kho pana māhu paro loko, hotu nesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ; atha ca panāyaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ gārayho – dussīlo purisapuggalo micchādiṭṭhi natthikavādo’ti. Sace kho attheva paro loko, evaṃ imassa bhoto purisapuggalassa ubhayattha kaliggaho – yañca diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ gārayho, yañca kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjissati. Evamassāyaṃ apaṇṇako dhammo dussamatto samādinno, ekaṃsaṃ pharitvā tiṭṭhati, riñcati kusalaṃ ṭhānaṃ.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
95. A1. "Now, householders, of those contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no brahmans or contemplatives who, faring rightly and practicing rightly, proclaim this world and the next after having directly known and realized it for themselves' — it can be expected that, shunning these three skillful activities — good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these three unskillful activities: bad bodily conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable contemplatives & brahmans do not see, in unskillful activities, the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement; nor in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

A2. "Because there actually is the next world, the view of one who thinks, 'There is no next world' is his wrong view. Because there actually is the next world, when he is resolved that 'There is no next world,' that is his wrong resolve. Because there actually is the next world, when he speaks the statement, 'There is no next world,' that is his wrong speech. Because there actually is the next world, when he is says that 'There is no next world,' he makes himself an opponent to those arahants who know the next world. Because there actually is the next world, when he persuades another that 'There is no next world,' that is persuasion in what is not true Dhamma. And in that persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, he exalts himself and disparages others. Whatever good habituation he previously had is abandoned, while bad habituation is manifested. And this wrong view, wrong resolve, wrong speech, opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, exaltation of self, & disparagement of others: These many evil, unskillful activities come into play, in dependence on wrong view.

A3. "With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'If there is no next world, then — with the breakup of the body, after death — this venerable person has made himself safe. But if there is the next world, then this venerable person — on the breakup of the body, after death — will reappear in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. Even if we didn't speak of the next world, and there weren't the true statement of those venerable contemplatives & brahmans, this venerable person is still criticized in the here-&-now by the observant as a person of bad habits & wrong view: 006 one who holds to a doctrine of non-existence.' If there really is a next world, then this venerable person has made a bad throw twice: in that he is criticized by the observant here-&-now, and in that — with the breakup of the body, after death — he will reappear in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when poorly grasped & poorly adopted by him, covers (only) one side, and leaves behind the possibility of the skillful.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
95.  “居士們,如果沙門婆羅門這樣說,如果他們持這種見解: ‘沒有布施;沒有祭祀;沒有祭品;沒有苦樂業的果報;沒有今生;沒有他世;沒有父恩;沒有母恩;沒有化生的眾生;在世上沒有進入正道、完滿修行的沙門婆羅門,親身以無比智證得有今生和他世。’ 他們便會不行踐身善行、口善行、意善行這三種善法,轉而作出身惡行、口惡行、意惡行這三種不善法。這是什麼原因呢?因為這些沙門婆羅門賢者看不見不善法的過患、退墮、染污,看不見善法的出離、利益、清淨。

  “這是有他世的,但他們持 ‘沒有他世’ 這種見解,這是一種邪見。這是有他世的,但他們帶著 ‘沒有他世’ 這種思維,這是一種邪思維。這是有他世的,但他們說 ‘沒有他世’ 這種說話,這是一種邪語。這是有他世的,但他們說 ‘沒有他世’ ,這跟說有他世的阿羅漢抵觸。這是有他世的,但他們教人 ‘沒有他世’ 的法義,這是教不正確的法義。他們教不正確的法義,由此而抬高自己、貶低別人。

  “他們捨棄之前的善行而建立惡行。以邪見為條件,帶來邪見、邪思維、邪語、抵觸聖者、教不正確的法義、抬高自己和貶低別人等無數惡不善法。

  “居士們,有智慧的人會這樣反思: ‘如果沒有他世的話,不善著手修習無諍之法的人會在身壞命終之後安然無事。如果有他世的話,這個人會在身壞命終之後投生在惡趣、地獄之中。即使不想說有他世,就讓說沒有他世的沙門婆羅門的說話是真的,這個人在現生之中也被智者譴責為戒行不好的人、邪見的人、持斷見的人。如果有他世,這個人兩生都遇到不幸:現生受智者譴責,身壞命終之後投生在惡趣、地獄之中。如果不善著手修習無諍之法的話,一個人只能在 “沒有他世” 這種論點之中才安然無事,而且離開了善法。’

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
95.  [世尊曰:]「居士等!在彼處,彼等沙門、婆羅門為如是說者、如是見者:「無 布施、無供犧牲、無供養、無善惡業、無果報,無此世界、無他世界,無母、無父, 無化生有情;無沙門、婆羅門之正行、正行道者,於世間,自己依通智自作證教化 此世界、他世界。」為彼等期待此:[彼等]此等三善法,即--身善行、口善行、 意善行回避已,遂行受持此等三不善法,即--身惡行、口惡行、意惡行。何以故? 彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊,不見諸不善法之災患、罪惡與穢污,[不見]諸善法於離欲 功德與清淨伴黨[故]也。

  他世界實有時,彼有此見:「無有他世界。」彼有此邪見也。他世界實有時「 彼有此思惟:「無有他世界。」彼有此邪思惟也。他世界實有時,彼有此語:「無 有他世界。」彼有此邪語也。他世界實有時,謂:「無有他世界。」此為對彼等知 他世界之諸阿羅漢作敵對也。他世界實有時,彼使他知:「無有他世界。」彼其非 正法之說示也。由其非正法之說示而自讚、毀他。如是,彼前有廢棄善戒性,今有 現起惡戒;又,此邪見、邪思惟、邪語、及對諸聖者之敵對、使[他]知非正法, 自讚、毀他,如是此等無數惡不善法,乃緣邪見而成也。
403 居士等!於是,智者如是精察之--若實無他世界,如此,則此個人身壞將自 作安穩;若實有他世界,如此,則此個人身壞命終當往生於惡生、惡趣、墮處、地 獄。不管實無有他世界,[亦不管]諸沙門、婆羅門師尊彼等之所言為真實,然實此
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一五七 ~ 一五八)
個人於現法,當為諸智者訶責謂:「是惡戒人,邪見虛無論者也。」若實有他世界, 則對此個人之不幸,有兩處:即於現法,諸智者予以訶責,又身壞命終後,當生於 惡生、惡趣、墮處、地獄。如是對彼,此無戲論法是惡成就、[ 014 惡]受持偏滿已, 唯充滿一邊而住,捨善處。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
96. ‘‘Tatra , gahapatayo, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘atthi dinnaṃ…pe… ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti tesametaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ? Yamidaṃ kāyaduccaritaṃ, vacīduccaritaṃ, manoduccaritaṃ – ime tayo akusale dhamme abhinivajjetvā yamidaṃ kāyasucaritaṃ, vacīsucaritaṃ, manosucaritaṃ – ime tayo kusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Passanti hi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ vodānapakkhaṃ. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘atthi paro loko’ tissa diṭṭhi hoti; sāssa hoti sammādiṭṭhi. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘atthi paro loko’ti saṅkappeti; svāssa hoti sammāsaṅkappo. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘atthi paro loko’ti vācaṃ bhāsati; sāssa hoti sammāvācā. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘atthi paro loko’ti āha; ye te arahanto paralokaviduno tesamayaṃ na paccanīkaṃ karoti. Santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘atthi paro loko’ti paraṃ saññāpeti; sāssa hoti saddhammasaññatti. Tāya ca pana saddhammasaññattiyā nevattānukkaṃseti, na paraṃ vambheti. Iti pubbeva kho panassa dussīlyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, susīlyaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ – ayañca sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā ariyānaṃ apaccanīkatā saddhammasaññatti anattukkaṃsanā aparavambhanā. Evamassime aneke kusalā dhammā sambhavanti sammādiṭṭhipaccayā.

‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘sace kho atthi paro loko , evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissati. Kāmaṃ kho pana māhu paro loko, hotu nesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ; atha ca panāyaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ pāsaṃso – sīlavā purisapuggalo sammādiṭṭhi atthikavādo’ti. Sace kho attheva paro loko, evaṃ imassa bhoto purisapuggalassa ubhayattha kaṭaggaho – yañca diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ pāsaṃso, yañca kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissati. Evamassāyaṃ apaṇṇako dhammo susamatto samādinno, ubhayaṃsaṃ pharitvā tiṭṭhati, riñcati akusalaṃ ṭhānaṃ.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
96. B1. "Now, householders, of those contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — 'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are brahmans & contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves' — it can be expected that, shunning these three unskillful activities — bad bodily conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these three skillful activities: good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable contemplatives & brahmans see in unskillful activities the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement; and in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

B2. "Because there actually is the next world, the view of one who thinks, 'There is a next world' is his right view. Because there actually is the next world, when he is resolved that 'There is a next world,' that is his right resolve. Because there actually is the next world, when he speaks the statement, 'There is a next world,' that is his right speech. Because there actually is the next world, when he is says that 'There is a next world,' he doesn't make himself an opponent to those arahants who know the next world. Because there actually is the next world, when he persuades another that 'There is a next world,' that is persuasion in what is true Dhamma. And in that persuasion in what is true Dhamma, he doesn't exalt himself or disparage others. Whatever bad habituation he previously had is abandoned, while good habituation is manifested. And this right view, right resolve, right speech, non-opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is true Dhamma, non-exaltation of self, & non-disparagement of others: These many skillful activities come into play, in dependence on right view.

B3. "With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'If there is the next world, then this venerable person — on the breakup of the body, after death — will reappear in a good destination, a heavenly world. Even if we didn't speak of the next world, and there weren't the true statement of those venerable contemplatives & brahmans, this venerable person is still praised in the here-&-now by the observant as a person of good habits & right view: one who holds to a doctrine of existence.' If there really is a next world, then this venerable person has made a good throw twice, in that he is praised by the observant here-&-now; and in that — with the breakup of the body, after death — he will reappear in a good destination, a heavenly world. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when well grasped & adopted by him, covers both sides, and leaves behind the possibility of the unskillful.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
96.  “居士們,如果沙門婆羅門這樣說,如果他們持這種見解: ‘有布施;有祭祀;有祭品;有苦樂業的果報;有今生;有他世;有父恩;有母恩;有化生的眾生;在世上有進入正道、完滿修行的沙門婆羅門,親身以無比智證得有今生和他世。’ 他們便會去掉身惡行、口惡行、意惡行這三種不善法,轉而作出身善行、口善行、意善行這三種善法。這是什麼原因呢?因為這些沙門婆羅門賢者看見不善法的過患、退墮、染污,看見善法的出離、利益、清淨。

  “這是有他世的,而他們持 ‘有他世’ 這種見解,這是一種正見。這是有他世的,而他們帶著 ‘有他世’ 這種思維,這是一種正思維。這是有他世的,而他們說 ‘有他世’ 這種說話,這是一種正語。這是有他世的,而他們說 ‘有他世’ ,這跟說有他世的阿羅漢沒有抵觸。這是有他世的,而他們教人 ‘有他世’ 的法義,這是教正法。他們教正法,不會由此而抬高自己、貶低別人。

  “他們捨棄之前的惡行而建立善行。以正見為條件,帶來正見、正思維、正語、不抵觸聖者、教正法、不抬高自己和貶低別人等無數善法。

  “居士們,有智慧的人會這樣反思: ‘如果有他世的話,善著手修習無諍之法的人會在身壞命終之後投生在善趣、天界之中。即使不想說有他世,就讓說沒有他世的沙門婆羅門的說話是真的,這個人在現生之中也被智者稱讚為戒行好的人、正見的人、持善因善果的見解的人。如果有他世,這個人兩生都是好的:現生受智者稱讚,身壞命終之後投生在善趣、天界之中。如果善著手修習無諍之法的話,一個人能在 “沒有他世” 或 “有他世” 兩種論點之中都得到好結果,而且離開了不善法。’

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
96.  居士等!於此,沙門、婆羅門等為如是說者,如是見者:「有布施、有供犧牲、 有供養、有善惡業、有果報,有此世界、有他世界、有母、有父、有化生有情;有 沙門、婆羅門之正行、正行道者,於世間,自己依通智自作證教化此世界、他世界。」 為彼等期待此:[彼等]此等三不善法--即身惡行、口惡行、意惡行迴避已;遂 行受特此三善法--即身善行、口善行、意善行。何以故?實彼等沙門、婆羅門見
404 諸不善法之災患、罪惡與穢污,[見]諸善法於離欲功德與清淨伴黨[故]也。他世 界實有時,彼有此之見:「有他世界。」彼有此正見也。他世界實有時,彼有此思 惟:「有他世界。」彼有此正思惟也。他世界實有時,彼有此語:「有他世界。」 彼有此正語也。他世界實有時,謂:「有他世界。」此為對彼等知他世界之諸阿羅 漢不作敵對者也。他世界實有時,彼向他說:「有他世界。」彼有正法之說示也。 又由彼正法之說示,而不自讚、不毀他。如是,彼前有廢棄惡戒,今現起有善戒; 又,此正見、正思惟、正語,及對諸聖者不敵對,使(他)知正法,不自讚、不毀 他。如是此等無數之善法,及緣正見而成也。

居士等!於是,智者如是精察之--若實有他世界,如此,則此個人身壞命終 後,當往生善趣、天界。不管實無他世界,諸沙門、婆羅門師尊彼等之所言為真實, 然此個人實於現法,當為諸智者稱讚謂:「是持戒之人,正見之說有 015 論者也。」 若實有他世界,則對此個人之幸福,有兩處:即於現法,諸智者予以稱讚;又身壞 命終後,當往生善趣、天界。如是對彼,此無戲論法是善成就、[善]受持偏滿已, 充滿兩邊而住之,捨不善處。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
97. ‘‘Santi, gahapatayo, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘karoto kārayato, chindato chedāpayato, pacato pācāpayato, socayato socāpayato, kilamato kilamāpayato, phandato phandāpayato, pāṇamatipātayato [pāṇamatimāpayato (sī. pī.), pāṇamatipātāpayato (syā. kaṃ.), pāṇamatipāpayato (ka.)], adinnaṃ ādiyato, sandhiṃ chindato, nillopaṃ harato, ekāgārikaṃ karoto, paripanthe tiṭṭhato, paradāraṃ gacchato, musā bhaṇato; karoto na karīyati pāpaṃ. Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā pathaviyā pāṇe ekaṃ maṃsakhalaṃ ekaṃ maṃsapuñjaṃ kareyya, natthi tatonidānaṃ pāpaṃ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Dakkhiṇañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṃ gaccheyya hananto ghātento, chindanto chedāpento, pacanto pācento; natthi tatonidānaṃ pāpaṃ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Uttarañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṃ gaccheyya dadanto dāpento, yajanto yajāpento; natthi tatonidānaṃ puññaṃ, natthi puññassa āgamo. Dānena damena saṃyamena saccavajjena [saccavācena (ka.)] natthi puññaṃ, natthi puññassa āgamo’ti. Tesaṃyeva kho, gahapatayo, samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ujuvipaccanīkavādā te evamāhaṃsu – ‘karoto kārayato, chindato chedāpayato, pacato pācāpayato, socayato socāpayato, kilamato kilamāpayato, phandato phandāpayato, pāṇamatipātayato, adinnaṃ ādiyato, sandhiṃ chindato, nillopaṃ harato, ekāgārikaṃ karoto, paripanthe tiṭṭhato, paradāraṃ gacchato, musā bhaṇato; karoto karīyati pāpaṃ. Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā pathaviyā pāṇe ekaṃ maṃsakhalaṃ ekaṃ maṃsapuñjaṃ kareyya, atthi tatonidānaṃ pāpaṃ, atthi pāpassa āgamo. Dakkhiṇañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṃ gaccheyya hananto ghātento, chindanto chedāpento, pacanto pācento; atthi tatonidānaṃ pāpaṃ, atthi pāpassa āgamo. Uttarañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṃ gaccheyya dadanto dāpento, yajanto yajāpento; atthi tatonidānaṃ puññaṃ, atthi puññassa āgamo. Dānena damena saṃyamena saccavajjena atthi puññaṃ, atthi puññassa āgamo’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, gahapatayo, nanume samaṇabrāhmaṇā aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā’’ti? ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
97.

Action & non-action

A. "There are some contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view: 'In acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others to mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture, in inflicting sorrow or in getting others to inflict sorrow, in tormenting or getting others to torment, in intimidating or getting others to intimidate, in taking life, taking what is not given, breaking into houses, plundering wealth, committing burglary, ambushing highways, committing adultery, speaking falsehood — one does no evil. If with a razor-edged disk one were to turn all the living beings on this earth to a single heap of flesh, a single pile of flesh, there would be no evil from that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were to go along the right bank of the Ganges, killing and getting others to kill, mutilating and getting others to mutilate, torturing and getting others to torture, there would be no evil from that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were to go along the left bank of the Ganges, giving and getting others to give, making sacrifices and getting others to make sacrifices, there would be no merit from that cause, no coming of merit. Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech there is no merit from that cause, no coming of merit.' 007

B. "Some contemplatives & brahmans, speaking in direct opposition to those contemplatives & brahmans, say this: 'In acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others to mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture, in inflicting sorrow or in getting others to inflict sorrow, in tormenting or getting others to torment, in intimidating or getting others to intimidate, in taking life, taking what is not given, breaking into houses, plundering wealth, committing burglary, ambushing highways, committing adultery, speaking falsehood — one does evil. If with a razor-edged disk one were to turn all the living beings on this earth to a single heap of flesh, a single pile of flesh, there would be evil from that cause, there would be a coming of evil. If one were to go along the right bank of the Ganges, killing and getting others to kill, mutilating and getting others to mutilate, torturing and getting others to torture, there would be evil from that cause, there would be a coming of evil. If one were to go along the left bank of the Ganges, giving and getting others to give, making sacrifices and getting others to make sacrifices, there would be merit from that cause, there would be a coming of merit. Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech there is merit from that cause, there is a coming of merit.'

"What do you think, householders? Don't these contemplatives & brahmans speak in direct opposition to each other?"

"Yes, lord."

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
97.  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門這樣說,他們持這種見解: ‘自己親手做或教別人做以下的事情:斬殺、燒殺、使人悲傷、使人疲累、使人顫抖、傷害生命、偷盜、搶劫、爆竊、攔途截劫、侵犯別人妻子、說妄語等都不是作惡。即使在車輪邊緣裝上利刃到處行走,把地上的眾生切割成一堆堆肉,這也沒有惡的因緣,不會有惡報到來。若去恆河南岸殺人、屠殺,斬殺、教別人斬殺,燒殺、教別人燒殺,這也沒有惡的因緣,不會有惡報到來;再去恆河北岸布施、教別人布施,祭祀、教別人祭祀,這也沒有福的因緣,不會有福報到來。布施、自我調伏、自我節制、說真話等沒有福,不會有福報到來。’

  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門則完全相反,他們這樣說: ‘自己親手做或教別人做以下的事情:斬殺、燒殺、使人悲傷、使人疲累、使人顫抖、傷害生命、偷盜、搶劫、爆竊、攔途截劫、侵犯別人妻子、說妄語等都是作惡。若在車輪邊緣裝上利刃到處行走,把地上的眾生切割成一堆堆肉,這有惡的因緣,會有惡報到來。若去恆河南岸殺人、屠殺,斬殺、教別人斬殺,燒殺、教別人燒殺,這有惡的因緣,會有惡報到來;若去恆河北岸布施、教別人布施,祭祀、教別人祭祀,這有福的因緣,會有福報到來。布施、自我調伏、自我節制、說真話等有福,會有福報到來。’

  “居士們,你們認為怎樣,這些沙門婆羅門互相之間是不是完全相反呢?”

  “大德,是的。”

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
97.  居士等!有一類沙門、婆羅門等為如是說者、如是見者:「[無論如何傷害人之 事],其 016 作者、令作者、切者、令切者、烤者、令烤者、令愁者、令折磨者、戰慄 者、令戰慄者、令殺生者、令不與取者、穿入家者、掠奪者、盜竊者、立路旁(搶 劫)者、通姦者、妄語者,[如是]作者,無罪惡被作也;又,以利劍輪將此大地之 生類,作成一肉聚、一肉山,由其因緣,無有罪惡、無有罪惡之果報;又,行於恆
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一五九 ~ 一六0)
河之南岸,害之、殺之、截之、令截、烤之、令烤之,由其因緣,無有罪惡、無有 罪惡之果報;又行於恆河之北岸,布施之、令布施之、祭祀之、使令祭祀之,由其 因緣,無功德,無功德之果報;依布施、依調御、依自制、依實語,亦無功德、無 功德之果報。」

405  居士等!對彼等沙門、婆羅門,[另有]一類沙門、婆羅門作反對之說,彼等如 是言:「[無論如何傷害人之事],其作者、令作者、切者、令切者、烤者、令烤者、 令愁者、令折磨者、戰慄者、令戰慄者、令殺生者、令不與取者、穿人家者、掠奪 者、盜竊者、立路傍(搶劫)者、通姦者、妄語者,[如是]作者,有罪惡被作也; 又,以利劍輪將此大地之生類,作成一肉聚、一肉山,由其因緣,有罪惡、有罪惡 之果報;又,行於恆河之南岸,害之、殺之、截之、令截之、烤之、令烤之,由其 因緣,有罪惡、有罪惡之果報;又,行於恆河之北岸,布施之、令布施之、祭祀之、 令祭祀之,由其因緣,有功德、有功德之果報;依布施、依調御、依自制、依實語, 而有功德、有功德之果報。」居士等!汝對其作何思耶?實此等沙門、婆羅門互相 [所為]之相反之說,其為非耶?」居士曰:「然也,尊者!」

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
98. ‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘karoto kārayato, chindato chedāpayato, pacato pācāpayato, socayato socāpayato, kilamato kilamāpayato, phandato phandāpayato, pāṇamatipātayato, adinnaṃ ādiyato, sandhiṃ chindato, nillopaṃ harato, ekāgārikaṃ karoto, paripanthe tiṭṭhato, paradāraṃ gacchato, musā bhaṇato; karoto na karīyati pāpaṃ. Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā pathaviyā pāṇe ekaṃ maṃsakhalaṃ ekaṃ maṃsapuñjaṃ kareyya, natthi tatonidānaṃ pāpaṃ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Dakkhiṇañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṃ gaccheyya hananto ghātento…pe… dānena damena saṃyamena saccavajjena natthi puññaṃ, natthi puññassa āgamo’ti tesametaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ? Yamidaṃ kāyasucaritaṃ, vacīsucaritaṃ, manosucaritaṃ – ime tayo kusale dhamme abhinivajjetvā yamidaṃ kāyaduccaritaṃ, vacīduccaritaṃ, manoduccaritaṃ – ime tayo akusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Na hi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā passanti akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ vodānapakkhaṃ. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘natthi kiriyā’ tissa diṭṭhi hoti; sāssa hoti micchādiṭṭhi. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘natthi kiriyā’ti saṅkappeti; svāssa hoti micchāsaṅkappo. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘natthi kiriyā’ti vācaṃ bhāsati; sāssa hoti micchāvācā. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘natthi kiriyā’ti āha, ye te arahanto kiriyavādā tesamayaṃ paccanīkaṃ karoti. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘natthi kiriyā’ti paraṃ saññāpeti; sāssa hoti asaddhammasaññatti. Tāya ca pana asaddhammasaññattiyā attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. Iti pubbeva kho panassa susīlyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, dussīlyaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ – ayañca micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā ariyānaṃ paccanīkatā asaddhammasaññatti attukkaṃsanā paravambhanā. Evamassime aneke pāpakā akusalā dhammā sambhavanti micchādiṭṭhipaccayā.

‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘sace kho natthi kiriyā, evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā sotthimattānaṃ karissati; sace kho atthi kiriyā evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjissati. Kāmaṃ kho pana māhu kiriyā, hotu nesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ; atha ca panāyaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ gārayho – dussīlo purisapuggalo micchādiṭṭhi akiriyavādo’ti. Sace kho attheva kiriyā, evaṃ imassa bhoto purisapuggalassa ubhayattha kaliggaho – yañca diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ gārayho, yañca kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjissati. Evamassāyaṃ apaṇṇako dhammo dussamatto samādinno, ekaṃsaṃ pharitvā tiṭṭhati, riñcati kusalaṃ ṭhānaṃ.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
98. A1. "Now, householders, of those contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — 'In acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others to mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture... one does no evil... Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech there is no merit from that cause, no coming of merit' — it can be expected that, shunning these three skillful activities — good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these three unskillful activities: bad bodily conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable contemplatives & brahmans do not see, in unskillful activities, the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement; nor in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

A2. "Because there actually is action, the view of one who thinks, 'There is no next action' is his wrong view. Because there actually is action, when he is resolved that 'There is no action,' that is his wrong resolve. Because there actually is action, when he speaks the statement, 'There is no action,' that is his wrong speech. Because there actually is action, when he is says that 'There is no action,' he makes himself an opponent to those arahants who teach action. Because there actually is action, when he persuades another that 'There is no action,' that is persuasion in what is not true Dhamma. And in that persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, he exalts himself and disparages others. Whatever good habituation he previously had is abandoned, while bad habituation is manifested. And this wrong view, wrong resolve, wrong speech, opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, exaltation of self, & disparagement of others: These many evil, unskillful activities come into play, in dependence on wrong view.

A3. "With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'If there is no action, then — with the breakup of the body, after death — this venerable person has made himself safe. But if there is action, then this venerable person — on the breakup of the body, after death — will reappear in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. Even if we didn't speak of action, and there weren't the true statement of those venerable contemplatives & brahmans, this venerable person is still criticized in the here-&-now by the observant as a person of bad habits & wrong view: one who holds to a doctrine of non-action.' If there really is action, then this venerable person has made a bad throw twice: in that he is criticized by the observant here-&-now; and in that — with the breakup of the body, after death — he will reappear in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when poorly grasped & poorly adopted by him, covers (only) one side, and leaves behind the possibility of the skillful.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
98.  “居士們,如果沙門婆羅門這樣說,如果他們持這種見解: ‘自己親手做或教別人做以下的事情:斬殺、燒殺、使人悲傷、使人疲累、使人顫抖、傷害生命、偷盜、搶劫、爆竊、攔途截劫、侵犯別人妻子、說妄語等都不是作惡……’ 他們便會不行踐身善行、口善行、意善行這三種善法,轉而作出身惡行、口惡行、意惡行這三種不善法。這是什麼原因呢?因為這些沙門婆羅門賢者看不見不善法的過患、退墮、染污,看不見善法的出離、利益、清淨。

  “這是有作善作惡的,但他們持 ‘沒有作善作惡’ 這種見解,這是一種邪見。這是有作善作惡的,但他們帶著 ‘沒有作善作惡’ 這種思維,這是一種邪思維。這是有作善作惡的,但他們說 ‘沒有作善作惡’ 這種說話,這是一種邪語。這是有作善作惡的,但他們說 ‘沒有作善作惡’ ,這跟說有作善作惡的阿羅漢抵觸。這是有作善作惡的,但他們教人 ‘沒有作善作惡’ 的法義,這是教不正確的法義。他們教不正確的法義,由此而抬高自己、貶低別人。

  “他們捨棄之前的善行而建立惡行。以邪見為條件,帶來邪見、邪思維、邪語、抵觸聖者、教不正確的法義、抬高自己和貶低別人等無數惡不善法。

  “居士們,有智慧的人會這樣反思: ‘如果沒有作善作惡的話,不善著手修習無諍之法的人會在身壞命終之後安然無事。如果有作善作惡的話,這個人會在身壞命終之後投生在惡趣、地獄之中。即使不想說有作善作惡,就讓說沒有作善作惡的沙門婆羅門的說話是真的,這個人在現生之中也被智者譴責為戒行不好的人、邪見的人、持沒有作善作惡的見解的人。如果有作善作惡,這個人兩生都遇到不幸:現生受智者譴責,身壞命終之後投生在惡趣、地獄之中。如果不善著手修習無諍之法的話,一個人只能在 “沒有作善作惡” 這種論點之中才安然無事,而且離開了善法。’

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
98.  [世尊曰:]「居士等!而彼等沙門、婆羅門為如是說者、如是見者:「[無論 任何傷害人之事],其作者、令作者……乃至……無有功德之果報。」為彼等可期待 此:[彼等]此等三善法--即身善行、口善行、意善行迴避已;遂受持此等三不 善法--即身惡行、口惡行、意惡行。何以故?實彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊不見諸不 善法之災患,罪惡與穢污,[不見]諸善法於離欲之功德與清淨伴黨(故)也。實有 所作業時,彼有此見:「無所作業。」彼有此邪見也。實有所作業時,彼有此思惟: 「無所作業。」彼有此邪思惟也。實有所作業時,彼有此語:「無所作業。」彼有 此邪語也。實有所作業時,謂:「無所作業。」其為對彼等有作業論之諸阿羅漢作 敵對者也。實有所作業時,彼向他說:「無所作業。」此,乃彼有此使知非正法之
406 說示也。又,由彼非正法之說示而自讚、毀他。如是,被前有廢棄善戒,今有現起 惡戒;此邪見、邪思惟、邪語、及對諸聖者敵對、使[他]知非正法,自讚、毀他, 如是此等無數惡不善法,是緣邪見而成也。」

居士等!於是,智者如是精察之--若實無所作業,如此,則此個人身壞將自 作安穩;若實有所作業,如此,則此個人身壞命終後,當生於惡生、惡趣、墮處、
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一六一 ~ 一六二)
地獄。不管實無所作業,[亦不管]彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊之語為真實,然此個人實 於現法當為諸智者訶責謂:「是惡戒人,邪見無作業論者。」若有所作業者,則對 此個人之不幸,有兩處:即於現法,為諸智者予以訶責;又具壞命終後,當生於惡 生、惡趣、墮處、地獄。如是,彼於此無戲論法是惡成就、[惡]受持偏滿已,唯一 邊而住之,捨善處。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
99. ‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘karoto kārayato, chindato chedāpayato, pacato pācāpayato, socayato socāpayato, kilamato kilamāpayato, phandato phandāpayato, pāṇamatipātayato, adinnaṃ ādiyato, sandhiṃ chindato, nillopaṃ harato, ekāgārikaṃ karoto, paripanthe tiṭṭhato, paradāraṃ gacchato, musā bhaṇato; karoto karīyati pāpaṃ. Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā pathaviyā pāṇe ekaṃ maṃsakhalaṃ ekaṃ maṃsapuñjaṃ kareyya, atthi tatonidānaṃ pāpaṃ, atthi pāpassa āgamo. Dakkhiṇañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṃ gaccheyya hananto ghātento, chindanto chedāpento, pacanto pācento, atthi tatonidānaṃ pāpaṃ, atthi pāpassa āgamo. Uttarañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṃ gaccheyya dadanto dāpento, yajanto yajāpento, atthi tatonidānaṃ puññaṃ, atthi puññassa āgamo. Dānena damena saṃyamena saccavajjena atthi puññaṃ, atthi puññassa āgamo’ti tesametaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ? Yamidaṃ kāyaduccaritaṃ, vacīduccaritaṃ , manoduccaritaṃ – ime tayo akusale dhamme abhinivajjetvā yamidaṃ kāyasucaritaṃ, vacīsucaritaṃ, manosucaritaṃ – ime tayo kusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Passanti hi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ vodānapakkhaṃ. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘atthi kiriyā’ tissa diṭṭhi hoti; sāssa hoti sammādiṭṭhi. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘atthi kiriyā’ti saṅkappeti; svāssa hoti sammāsaṅkappo. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘atthi kiriyā’ti vācaṃ bhāsati; sāssa hoti sammāvācā. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘atthi kiriyā’ti āha; ye te arahanto kiriyavādā tesamayaṃ na paccanīkaṃ karoti. Santaṃyeva kho pana kiriyaṃ ‘atthi kiriyā’ti paraṃ saññāpeti; sāssa hoti saddhammasaññatti. Tāya ca pana saddhammasaññattiyā nevattānukkaṃseti, na paraṃ vambheti. Iti pubbeva kho panassa dussīlyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, susīlyaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ – ayañca sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā ariyānaṃ apaccanīkatā saddhammasaññatti anattukkaṃsanā aparavambhanā. Evamassime aneke kusalā dhammā sambhavanti sammādiṭṭhipaccayā.

‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘sace kho atthi kiriyā, evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissati. Kāmaṃ kho pana māhu kiriyā, hotu nesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ; atha ca panāyaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ pāsaṃso – sīlavā purisapuggalo sammādiṭṭhi kiriyavādo’ti. Sace kho attheva kiriyā, evaṃ imassa bhoto purisapuggalassa ubhayattha kaṭaggaho – yañca diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ pāsaṃso, yañca kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissati. Evamassāyaṃ apaṇṇako dhammo susamatto samādinno, ubhayaṃsaṃ pharitvā tiṭṭhati, riñcati akusalaṃ ṭhānaṃ.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
99. B1. "Now, householders, of those contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — 'In acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others to mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture... one does evil... Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech there is merit from that cause, there is a coming of merit' — it can be expected that, shunning these three unskillful activities — bad bodily conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these three skillful activities: good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable contemplatives & brahmans see in unskillful activities the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement; and in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

B2. "Because there actually is action, the view of one who thinks, 'There is action' is his right view. Because there actually is action, when he is resolved that 'There is action,' that is his right resolve. Because there actually is action, when he speaks the statement, 'There is action,' that is his right speech. Because there actually is action, when he is says that 'There is action,' he doesn't make himself an opponent to those arahants who teach action. Because there actually is action, when he persuades another that 'There is action,' that is persuasion in what is true Dhamma. And in that persuasion in what is true Dhamma, he doesn't exalt himself or disparage others. Whatever bad habituation he previously had is abandoned, while good habituation is manifested. And this right view, right resolve, right speech, non-opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is true Dhamma, non-exaltation of self, & non-disparagement of others: These many skillful activities come into play, in dependence on right view.

B3. "With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'If there is action, then this venerable person — on the breakup of the body, after death — will reappear in a good destination, a heavenly world. Even if we didn't speak of action, and there weren't the true statement of those venerable contemplatives & brahmans, this venerable person is still praised in the here-&-now by the observant as a person of good habits & right view: one who holds to a doctrine of action.' If there really is a next world, then this venerable person has made a good throw twice, in that he is praised by the observant here-&-now; and in that — with the breakup of the body, after death — he will reappear in a good destination, a heavenly world. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when well grasped & adopted by him, covers both sides, and leaves behind the possibility of the unskillful.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
99.  “居士們,如果沙門婆羅門這樣說,如果他們持這種見解: ‘自己親手做或教別人做以下的事情:斬殺、燒殺、使人悲傷、使人疲累、使人顫抖、傷害生命、偷盜、搶劫、爆竊、攔途截劫、侵犯別人妻子、說妄語等都是作惡……’ 他們便會去掉身惡行、口惡行、意惡行這三種不善法,轉而作出身善行、口善行、意善行這三種善法。這是什麼原因呢?因為這些沙門婆羅門賢者看見不善法的過患、退墮、染污,看見善法的出離、利益、清淨。

  “這是有作善作惡的,而他們持 ‘有作善作惡’ 這種見解,這是一種正見。這是有作善作惡的,而他們帶著 ‘有作善作惡’ 這種思維,這是一種正思維。這是有作善作惡的,而他們說 ‘有作善作惡’ 這種說話,這是一種正語。這是有作善作惡的,而他們說 ‘有作善作惡’ ,這跟說有作善作惡的阿羅漢沒有抵觸。這是有作善作惡的,而他們教人 ‘有作善作惡’ 的法義,這是教正法。他們教正法,不會由此而抬高自己、貶低別人。

  “他們捨棄之前的惡行而建立善行。以正見為條件,帶來正見、正思維、正語、不抵觸聖者、教正法、不抬高自己和貶低別人等無數善法。

  “居士們,有智慧的人會這樣反思: ‘如果有作善作惡的話,善著手修習無諍之法的人會在身壞命終之後投生在善趣、天界之中。即使不想說有作善作惡,就讓說沒有作善作惡的沙門婆羅門的說話是真的,這個人在現生之中也被智者稱讚為戒行好的人、正見的人、持有作善作惡的見解的人。如果有作善作惡,這個人兩生都是好的:現生受智者稱讚,身壞命終之後投生在善趣、天界之中。如果善著手修習無諍之法的話,一個人能在 “沒有作善作惡” 或 “有作善作惡” 兩種論點之中都得到好結果,而且離開了不善法。’

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
99.  「居士等!於是,彼等沙門、婆羅門為如是說者、如是見者:」[無論任何傷害 他人之事],其作者、令作者……乃至……有功德之果報。「為彼等可期待此:[彼 等]此等三惡法——即身惡行、語惡行、意惡行迴避已;將遂行受持此等三善法 --即身善行、口善行、意善行。何以故?實彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊見諸不善法之 災患、罪惡與穢污,[見]諸善法於離欲之功德與清淨伴黨[故]也。有所作業時, 彼有此見:「有所作業。」彼有此正見也。有所作業時,彼有此思惟:「有所作業。」 彼有此正思惟也。有所作業時,彼有此語「有所作業。」彼有此正語也。有所作業 時,謂之:「有所作業。」此為對彼等有所作業論之諸阿羅漢不作敵對者也。實有
407 所作業時,彼向他說:「有所作業。」此,乃彼正法之說示也。又,由彼正法之說 示而不自讚、不毀他。如是,彼前有廢棄惡戒,今有現起善戒。此正見、正思惟、 正語、及對諸聖者非敵對,使[他]知正法,不自讚、不毀他,如是此等無數之善 法,乃緣正見而成也。」

居士等!於是,智者如是精察之——若實有所作業,如此,則此個人身壞命終 後,當往生善趣、天界。不管實無所作業,[亦不管]彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊之語為 真實,然此個人實於現法當為諸智者稱讚謂:「是持戒之人,正見之有作業論者也。」 若實有所作業者,則對此個人之幸福,有兩處也,即於現法,諸智者予以稱讚;又 身壞命終後,當往生善趣、天界。如是對彼,此無戲論法是善成就、[善]受持偏滿 已,充滿兩邊而住之,捨不善處。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
100. ‘‘Santi , gahapatayo, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṃ saṃkilesāya; ahetū appaccayā sattā saṃkilissanti. Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā; ahetū appaccayā sattā visujjhanti. Natthi balaṃ, natthi vīriyaṃ [viriyaṃ (sī. syā. kaṃ. pī.)], natthi purisathāmo, natthi purisaparakkamo; sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā niyatisaṃgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedentī’ti. Tesaṃyeva kho, gahapatayo, samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ujuvipaccanīkavādā. Te evamāhaṃsu – ‘atthi hetu, atthi paccayo sattānaṃ saṃkilesāya; sahetū sappaccayā sattā saṃkilissanti. Atthi hetu, atthi paccayo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā; sahetū sappaccayā sattā visujjhanti. Atthi balaṃ, atthi vīriyaṃ, atthi purisathāmo, atthi purisaparakkamo; na sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā [atthi purisaparakkamo, sabbe sattā… savasā sabalā savīriyā (syā. kaṃ. ka.)] niyatisaṃgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedentī’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, gahapatayo, nanume samaṇabrāhmaṇā aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā’ti? ‘Evaṃ, bhante’.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
100.

Causality & non-causality

A. "There are some contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view: 'There is no causality, no requisite condition, for the defilement of beings. Beings are defiled without causality, without requisite condition. There is no causality, no requisite condition, for the purification of beings. Beings are purified without causality, without requisite condition. There is no strength, no effort, no human energy, no human endeavor. All living beings, all life, all beings, all souls are powerless, devoid of strength, devoid of effort. Subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth.' 008

B. "Some contemplatives & brahmans, speaking in direct opposition to those contemplatives & brahmans, say this: 'There is causality, there is requisite condition, for the defilement of beings. Beings are defiled with causality, with requisite condition. There is causality, there is requisite condition, for the purification of beings. Beings are purified with causality, with requisite condition. There is strength, there is effort, there is human energy, there is human endeavor. It's not the case that all living beings, all life, all beings, all souls are powerless, devoid of strength, devoid of effort; or that subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth.'

"What do you think, householders? Don't these contemplatives & brahmans speak in direct opposition to each other?"

"Yes, lord."

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
100.  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門這樣說,他們持這種見解: ‘沒有因、沒有緣令眾生污染,眾生的污染是沒有因、沒有緣的;沒有因、沒有緣令眾生清淨,眾生的清淨是沒有因、沒有緣的。沒有力,沒有精進,沒有人的奮勇,沒有人的進取。所有眾生、所有生命都沒有權、沒有力、沒有精進,一起命中注定地在六道之中生存,感受苦和樂。’

  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門則完全相反,他們這樣說: ‘有因、有緣令眾生污染,眾生的污染是有因、有緣的;有因、有緣令眾生清淨,眾生的清淨是有因、有緣的。有力,有精進,有人的奮勇,有人的進取。不是所有眾生、所有生命都沒有權、沒有力、沒有精進,一起命中注定地在六道之中生存,感受苦和樂的。’

  “居士們,你們認為怎樣,這些沙門婆羅門互相之間是不是完全相反呢?”

  “大德,是的。”

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
100.  居士等!有一類沙門、婆羅門為如是說者、如是見者:」有情 017 雜染為無因無 緣:由無因無緣而諸有情被雜染之。有情之清淨為無因無緣由無因無緣而諸有情被 清淨之。無力、無精進、無人之勢力、無人之勇猛。一切有情、一切生類、一切有 類、一切有命者,是無自在、無力、無精進,而由[宿世]命運、[階級]結合、[本 然之]自性而轉變,如是於六種階級感受樂苦。」
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一六三 ~ 一六四)
居士等!對彼等沙門、婆羅門,[另有]一類沙門、婆羅門作反對之說,彼等如 是說:「諸有情之雜染為有因有緣;由有因有緣而諸有情被雜染之。諸有情之清淨 為有因有緣,由有因有緣而諸有情被清淨之。有力、有精進、有人之勢力、有人之 勇猛。非一切有情、一切生類、一切有類、一切之有命者非無自在、無力、無精進, 而由[宿世之]命運、[階級之]結合、[本然之]自性而轉變,如是於六種階級感
408 受樂苦。」居士等!汝對其作何思耶?此等沙門、婆羅門互相為相反之說,其為非 耶?居士等曰:「然也,尊者!」

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
101. ‘‘Tatra , gahapatayo, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṃ saṃkilesāya; ahetū appaccayā sattā saṃkilissanti. Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā; ahetū appaccayā sattā visujjhanti. Natthi balaṃ, natthi vīriyaṃ, natthi purisathāmo, natthi purisaparakkamo; sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā niyatisaṃgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedentī’ti tesametaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ? Yamidaṃ kāyasucaritaṃ, vacīsucaritaṃ, manosucaritaṃ – ime tayo kusale dhamme abhinivajjetvā yamidaṃ kāyaduccaritaṃ, vacīduccaritaṃ, manoduccaritaṃ – ime tayo akusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Na hi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā passanti akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ vodānapakkhaṃ. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘natthi hetū’ tissa diṭṭhi hoti; sāssa hoti micchādiṭṭhi. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘natthi hetū’ti saṅkappeti ; svāssa hoti micchāsaṅkappo. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘natthi hetū’ti vācaṃ bhāsati; sāssa hoti micchāvācā. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘natthi hetū’ti āha; ye te arahanto hetuvādā tesamayaṃ paccanīkaṃ karoti. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘natthi hetū’ti paraṃ saññāpeti; sāssa hoti asaddhammasaññatti. Tāya ca pana asaddhammasaññattiyā attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. Iti pubbeva kho panassa susīlyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, dussīlyaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ – ayañca micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā ariyānaṃ paccanīkatā asaddhammasaññatti attānukkaṃsanā paravambhanā. Evamassime aneke pāpakā akusalā dhammā sambhavanti micchādiṭṭhipaccayā.

‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘sace kho natthi hetu, evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sotthimattānaṃ karissati; sace kho atthi hetu, evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjissati. Kāmaṃ kho pana māhu hetu, hotu nesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ; atha ca panāyaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ gārayho – dussīlo purisapuggalo micchādiṭṭhi ahetukavādo’ti. Sace kho attheva hetu, evaṃ imassa bhoto purisapuggalassa ubhayattha kaliggaho – yañca diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ gārayho, yañca kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjissati. Evamassāyaṃ apaṇṇako dhammo dussamatto samādinno, ekaṃsaṃ pharitvā tiṭṭhati, riñcati kusalaṃ ṭhānaṃ.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
101. A1. "Now, householders, of those contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — 'There is no cause, no requisite condition, for the defilement of beings... Subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth' — it can be expected that, shunning these three skillful activities — good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these three unskillful activities: bad bodily conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable contemplatives & brahmans do not see, in unskillful activities, the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement; nor in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

A2. "Because there actually is causality, the view of one who thinks, 'There is no causality' is his wrong view. Because there actually is causality, when he is resolved that 'There is no causality,' that is his wrong resolve. Because there actually is causality, when he speaks the statement, 'There is no causality,' that is his wrong speech. Because there actually is causality, when he is says that 'There is no causality,' he makes himself an opponent to those arahants who teach causality. Because there actually is causality, when he persuades another that 'There is no causality,' that is persuasion in what is not true Dhamma. And in that persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, he exalts himself and disparages others. Whatever good habituation he previously had is abandoned, while bad habituation is manifested. And this wrong view, wrong resolve, wrong speech, opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, exaltation of self, & disparagement of others: These many evil, unskillful activities come into play, in dependence on wrong view.

A3. "With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'If there is no causality, then — with the breakup of the body, after death — this venerable person has made himself safe. But if there is causality, then this venerable person — on the breakup of the body, after death — will reappear in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. Even if we didn't speak of causality, and there weren't the true statement of those venerable contemplatives & brahmans, this venerable person is still criticized in the here-&-now by the observant as a person of bad habits & wrong view: one who holds to a doctrine of non-causality.' If there really is a next world, then this venerable person has made a bad throw twice: in that he is criticized by the observant here-&-now, and in that — with the breakup of the body, after death — he will reappear in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when poorly grasped & poorly adopted by him, covers (only) one side, and leaves behind the possibility of the skillful.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
101.  “居士們,如果沙門婆羅門這樣說,如果他們持這種見解:‘沒有因、沒有緣令眾生污染,眾生的污染是沒有因、沒有緣的;沒有因、沒有緣令眾生清淨,眾生的清淨是沒有因、沒有緣的……’ 他們便會不行踐身善行、口善行、意善行這三種善法,轉而作出身惡行、口惡行、意惡行這三種不善法。這是什麼原因呢?因為這些沙門婆羅門賢者看不見不善法的過患、退墮、染污,看不見善法的出離、利益、清淨。

  “清淨與污染是有原因的,但他們持 ‘清淨與污染沒有原因’ 這種見解,這是一種邪見。清淨與污染是有原因的,但他們帶著 ‘清淨與污染沒有原因’ 這種思維,這是一種邪思維。清淨與污染是有原因的,但他們說 ‘清淨與污染沒有原因’ 這種說話,這是一種邪語。清淨與污染是有原因的,但他們說 ‘清淨與污染沒有原因’ ,這跟說清淨與污染是有原因的阿羅漢抵觸。清淨與污染是有原因的,但他們教人 ‘清淨與污染沒有原因’ 的法義,這是教不正確的法義。他們教不正確的法義,由此而抬高自己、貶低別人。

  “他們捨棄之前的善行而建立惡行。以邪見為條件,帶來邪見、邪思維、邪語、抵觸聖者、教不正確的法義、抬高自己和貶低別人等無數惡不善法。

  “居士們,有智慧的人會這樣反思: ‘如果清淨與污染是沒有原因的話,不善著手修習無諍之法的人會在身壞命終之後安然無事。如果清淨與污染是有原因的話,這個人會在身壞命終之後投生在惡趣、地獄之中。即使不想說清淨與污染是有原因的,就讓說清淨與污染沒有原因的沙門婆羅門的說話是真的,這個人在現生之中也被智者譴責為戒行不好的人、邪見的人、持清淨與污染沒有原因的見解的人。如果清淨與污染是有原因的,這個人兩生都遇到不幸:現生受智者譴責,身壞命終之後投生在惡趣、地獄之中。如果不善著手修習無諍之法的話,一個人只能在 “清淨與污染沒有原因” 這種論點之中才安然無事,而且離開了善法。’

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
101.  [世尊曰:]「居士等!於是,彼等沙門、婆羅門為如是說者、如是見者:「有 情之雜染為無因無緣……乃至……受樂苦。」為彼等可期待此:[彼等]迴避此等 三善法--即身善行、口善行、意善行,遂行受持此等三不善法--即身惡行、口 惡行、意惡行。何以故?彼等沙門、婆羅門實不見諸不善法之災患,罪惡及穢污, [不見]諸善法於離欲之功德與清淨伴黨[故]也。實有因時,彼有此見:「無有 因。」彼有此邪見也。實有因時,彼有此思惟:「無有因。」彼有此邪思惟也。實 有因時,彼有此語:「無有因。」彼有此邪語也。實有因時,謂之:「無有因。」 此為對彼等有因論之諸阿羅漢作敵對者也。實有因時,彼向他說:「無有因。」此, 乃彼非正法之說示也。又,由彼非正法之說示而自讚毀他。如是,彼前有廢棄善戒、 今有現起惡戒。此邪見、邪思惟、邪語、及對諸聖者敵對,使[他]知非正法,自 讚、毀他,如是此等無數之惡不善法,乃緣邪見而成也。

居士等!於是,智者如是精察之--若實無有因,如此,則此個人身壞,當自 作安穩。若實有因者,如此,則此個人身壞命終後,當生惡生、惡趣、墮處、地獄。
409 不管實無有因,[亦不管]彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊之語為真實,然此個人實於現法為 諸智者訶責謂:「是惡戒之人,邪見之無因論者。」若實有因,則此個人之不幸,有 兩處,即於現法為諸智者予以訶責;又身壞命終後.當生於惡生、惡趣、墮處、地 獄。如是對彼,此無戲論法是惡成就、[惡]受持偏滿已,於一邊而住之,捨善處。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
102. ‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘atthi hetu, atthi paccayo sattānaṃ saṃkilesāya; sahetū sappaccayā sattā saṃkilissanti. Atthi hetu, atthi paccayo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā; sahetū sappaccayā sattā visujjhanti. Atthi balaṃ, atthi vīriyaṃ, atthi purisathāmo, atthi purisaparakkamo; na sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā niyatisaṃgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedentī’ti tesametaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ? Yamidaṃ kāyaduccaritaṃ, vacīduccaritaṃ, manoduccaritaṃ – ime tayo akusale dhamme abhinivajjetvā yamidaṃ kāyasucaritaṃ, vacīsucaritaṃ, manosucaritaṃ – ime tayo kusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Passanti hi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ādīnavaṃ okāraṃ saṃkilesaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ nekkhamme ānisaṃsaṃ vodānapakkhaṃ. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘atthi hetū’ tissa diṭṭhi hoti; sāssa hoti sammādiṭṭhi. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘atthi hetū’ti saṅkappeti; svāssa hoti sammāsaṅkappo. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘atthi hetū’ti vācaṃ bhāsati; sāssa hoti sammāvācā. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘atthi hetū’ti āha, ye te arahanto hetuvādā tesamayaṃ na paccanīkaṃ karoti. Santaṃyeva kho pana hetuṃ ‘atthi hetū’ti paraṃ saññāpeti; sāssa hoti saddhammasaññatti. Tāya ca pana saddhammasaññattiyā nevattānukkaṃseti, na paraṃ vambheti. Iti pubbeva kho panassa dussīlyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, susīlyaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ – ayañca sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā ariyānaṃ apaccanīkatā saddhammasaññatti anattukkaṃsanā aparavambhanā. Evamassime aneke kusalā dhammā sambhavanti sammādiṭṭhipaccayā. ‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘sace kho atthi hetu, evamayaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissati. Kāmaṃ kho pana māhu hetu, hotu nesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ; atha ca panāyaṃ bhavaṃ purisapuggalo diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ pāsaṃso – sīlavā purisapuggalo sammādiṭṭhi hetuvādo’ti. Sace kho atthi hetu , evaṃ imassa bhoto purisapuggalassa ubhayattha kaṭaggaho – yañca diṭṭheva dhamme viññūnaṃ pāsaṃso, yañca kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissati. Evamassāyaṃ apaṇṇako dhammo susamatto samādinno, ubhayaṃsaṃ pharitvā tiṭṭhati, riñcati akusalaṃ ṭhānaṃ.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
102. B1. "Now, householders, of those contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — 'There is causality, there is requisite condition, for the defilement of beings... It's not the case that all living beings, all life, all beings, all souls are powerless, devoid of strength, devoid of effort; or that subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth' — it can be expected that, shunning these three unskillful activities — bad bodily conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these three skillful activities: good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable contemplatives & brahmans see in unskillful activities the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement; and in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

B2. "Because there actually is causality, the view of one who thinks, 'There is causality' is his right view. Because there actually is causality, when he is resolved that 'There is causality,' that is his right resolve. Because there actually causality, when he speaks the statement, 'There is causality,' that is his right speech. Because there actually is causality, when he is says that 'There is causality,' he doesn't make himself an opponent to those arahants who teach causality. Because there actually is causality, when he persuades another that 'There is causality,' that is persuasion in what is true Dhamma. And in that persuasion in what is true Dhamma, he doesn't exalt himself or disparage others. Whatever bad habituation he previously had is abandoned, while good habituation is manifested. And this right view, right resolve, right speech, non-opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is true Dhamma, non-exaltation of self, & non-disparagement of others: These many skillful activities come into play, in dependence on right view.

B3. "With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'If there is causality, then this venerable person — on the breakup of the body, after death — will reappear in a good destination, a heavenly world. Even if we didn't speak of causality, and there weren't the true statement of those venerable contemplatives & brahmans, this venerable person is still praised in the here-&-now by the observant as a person of good habits & right view: one who holds to a doctrine of causality.' If there really is causality, then this venerable person has made a good throw twice, in that he is praised by the observant here-&-now; and in that — with the breakup of the body, after death — he will reappear in a good destination, a heavenly world. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when well grasped & adopted by him, covers both sides, and leaves behind the possibility of the unskillful.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
102.  “居士們,如果沙門婆羅門這樣說,如果他們持這種見解:‘有因、有緣令眾生污染,眾生的污染是有因、有緣的;有因、有緣令眾生清淨,眾生的清淨是有因、有緣的……’ 他們便會去掉身惡行、口惡行、意惡行這三種不善法,轉而作出身善行、口善行、意善行這三種善法。這是什麼原因呢?因為這些沙門婆羅門賢者看見不善法的過患、退墮、染污,看見善法的出離、利益、清淨。   “清淨與污染是有原因的,而他們持 ‘清淨與污染是有原因的’ 這種見解,這是一種正見。清淨與污染是有原因的,而他們帶著 ‘清淨與污染是有原因的’ 這種思維,這是一種正思維。清淨與污染是有原因的,而他們說 ‘清淨與污染是有原因的’ 這種說話,這是一種正語。清淨與污染是有原因的,而他們說 ‘清淨與污染是有原因的’ ,這跟說清淨與污染是有原因的阿羅漢沒有抵觸。清淨與污染是有原因的,而他們教人 ‘清淨與污染是有原因的’ 的法義,這是教正法。他們教正法,不會由此而抬高自己、貶低別人。   “他們捨棄之前的惡行而建立善行。以正見為條件,帶來正見、正思維、正語、不抵觸聖者、教正法、不抬高自己和貶低別人等無數善法。

  “居士們,有智慧的人會這樣反思: ‘如果清淨與污染是有原因的話,善著手修習無諍之法的人會在身壞命終之後投生在善趣、天界之中。即使不想說清淨與污染是有原因的,就讓說清淨與污染沒有原因的沙門婆羅門的說話是真的,這個人在現生之中也被智者稱讚為戒行好的人、正見的人、持清淨與污染是有原因的見解的人。如果清淨與污染是有原因的,這個人兩生都是好的:現生受智者稱讚,身壞命終之後投生在善趣、天界之中。如果善著手修習無諍之法的話,一個人能在 “清淨與污染沒有原因” 或 “清淨與污染是有原因的” 兩種論點之中都得到好結果,而且離開了不善法。’

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
102.  居士等!於是,彼等沙門、婆羅門為如是說者,如是見者:「有情之雜染為有 因有緣……乃至……非一切有情……乃至……放六種階級受樂苦也。」彼等可期待 此:[彼等]此等三不善法--即身惡行、口惡行、意惡行迴避已,遂行受持此等 三善法--即此身善行、口善行、意善行。何以故?彼等沙門、婆羅門實不見諸不
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一六五 ~ 一六六)
善法之災患、罪惡及穢污,[不見]諸善法於離欲之功德與清淨伴黨也。實有因時, 彼有此見:「有因。」彼有此正見出。宜有因時,彼有此思惟:「有因。」彼有此 正思惟也。實有因時,彼有此語:「有因。」彼有此正語也。實有因時,謂之:「有 因。」此為彼等對有因論之諸阿羅漢不作敵對者也。實有因時,彼使他如:「有因。」 有此使[他]知正法也。又,由彼使[他]知正法而不自讚、不毀他。如是,彼前 有廢棄惡戒、今有現起善戒。此正見、正思惟、正語、及對諸聖者非敵對,使[他] 知正法,不自讚、不毀他,如是此等無數之善法,乃緣正見而成也。

居士等!於是,智者如是精察之--若實有因,如此,則此個人身壞命終後, 當往生善趣、天界。不管實無有因,[亦不管]彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊之語為真實, 然此個人實於現法,為諸智者稱讚謂:「是持戒之人,正見之有因論者。」若實有
410 因,對此個人之幸福,有兩處--即於現法,諸智者予以稱讚,又具壞命終後,當 往生善趣、天界。如是對彼,此無戲論法是善成就[善]受持偏滿已,充滿兩邊而 住之,捨不善處。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
103. ‘‘Santi, gahapatayo, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi sabbaso āruppā’ti. Tesaṃyeva kho, gahapatayo, samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ujuvipaccanīkavādā. Te evamāhaṃsu – ‘atthi sabbaso āruppā’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, gahapatayo, nanume samaṇabrāhmaṇā aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā’’ti? ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’. ‘‘Tatra , gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ye kho te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi sabbaso āruppā’ti, idaṃ me adiṭṭhaṃ; yepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘atthi sabbaso āruppā’ti, idaṃ me aviditaṃ. Ahañceva [ahañce (?)] kho pana ajānanto apassanto ekaṃsena ādāya vohareyyaṃ – idameva saccaṃ, moghamaññanti, na metaṃ assa patirūpaṃ. Ye kho te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi sabbaso āruppā’ti, sace tesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ, ṭhānametaṃ vijjati – ye te devā rūpino manomayā, apaṇṇakaṃ me tatrūpapatti bhavissati. Ye pana te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘atthi sabbaso āruppā’ti, sace tesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ, ṭhānametaṃ vijjati – ye te devā arūpino saññāmayā, apaṇṇakaṃ me tatrūpapatti bhavissati. Dissanti kho pana rūpādhikaraṇaṃ [rūpakāraṇā (ka.)] daṇḍādāna-satthādāna-kalaha-viggaha-vivāda-tuvaṃtuvaṃ-pesuñña-musāvādā. ‘Natthi kho panetaṃ sabbaso arūpe’’’ti. So iti paṭisaṅkhāya rūpānaṃyeva nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
103.

Formlessness

"There are some contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view: 'There is no total formlessness.' Some contemplatives & brahmans, speaking in direct opposition to those contemplatives & brahmans, say this: 'There is total formlessness.' What do you think, householders? Don't these contemplatives & brahmans speak in direct opposition to each other?"

"Yes, lord."

"With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is no total formlessness" — I haven't seen that. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is total formlessness" — I haven't known that. If I, not knowing, not seeing, were to take one side and declare, "Only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless," that would not be fitting for me. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is no total formlessness": If their statement is true, there's the safe-bet possibility that I might reappear among the mind-made devas of form. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is total formlessness": If their statement is true, there's the safe-bet possibility that I might reappear among the perception-made devas of no form. The taking up of rods & weapons, quarrels, contention, disputes, recrimination, divisiveness, & false speech are seen to arise from form, but not from total formlessness.' Reflecting thus, he practices for disenchantment toward forms, for dispassion toward forms, and for the cessation of forms.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
103.  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門這樣說,他們持這種見解: ‘沒有無色界。’

  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門則完全相反,他們這樣說: ‘有無色界。’

  “居士們,你們認為怎樣,這些沙門婆羅門互相之間是不是完全相反呢?”

  “大德,是的。”

  “居士們,有智慧的人這樣反思: ‘一些沙門婆羅門賢者說沒有無色界,但我看不見。一些沙門婆羅門賢者說有無色界,但我不知道。在我不知道、看不見的情形下,是不適宜執持任何一方而說某一方真、某一方假的。一些沙門婆羅門說沒有無色界,如果他們的說話是真的話,我修習無諍之法,可以投生至由意所作的色界天之中。一些沙門婆羅門說有無色界,如果他們的說話是真的話,我修習無諍之法,可以投生至由想所作的無色界天之中──手拿棒杖、手拿武器、爭吵、爭罵、爭執、不和、兩舌、妄語等都是因色而有,無色界是沒有這些東西的。’ 他這樣計量後,便進入對色厭離、無欲、寂滅的道路。

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
103.  居士等!有一類沙門、婆羅門為如是說者,如是見者:「無色[界]者,以一 切[行相],可證其皆無。」居士等!對彼等沙門、婆羅門,[另有]有一類沙門、 婆羅門作反對之說:「無色[界]者,以一切[行相]可證其皆有。」居士等!汝 對其作何思耶?此等沙門、婆羅門為互相相反之說,其為非耶?」居士等曰:「然也, 尊者。」[世尊曰:]「居士等!於是,智者如是精察之--彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊 實為如是說者、如是見者:「無色[界]者,以一切[行相]可證其皆無。」其為 予所不見。又,[其他]沙門、婆羅門師尊為如是說者、如是見者:「無色[界]者, 以一切[行相]可證其皆有。「此為予所不知。而予實為不知者、不見者,予可一向 決斷言:「唯此是真實,其他是虛偽。」予對此斷言為不適當。沙門、婆羅門師尊 實為如是說、如是見者:「無色[界]者,以一切[行相]可證其皆無。」若彼等 沙門、婆羅門師尊之語為真實,則見此:「凡彼等有色之天,為意所成也;予 018 定 當往生彼處。」[有是]理也。然而,彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊如是說、如是見者:「無 色[界]者,以一切[行相]可證其皆有。」若彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊之語為真實, 則見:「凡此彼等無色之天,為想所成也,予定往生彼處。」因色而起諍論,執刀 杖.現出鬥爭、異執、論爭、抗爭、離間語、妄語、此一切[行相]實於無色[界]
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一六七 ~ 一六八)
不有是理也。彼如是思擇而成為對諸色厭惡離欲、滅盡之行者。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
104. ‘‘Santi, gahapatayo, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti. Tesaṃyeva kho, gahapatayo, samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ujuvipaccanīkavādā. Te evamāhaṃsu – ‘atthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, gahapatayo, nanume samaṇabrāhmaṇā aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā’’ti? ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’. ‘‘Tatra, gahapatayo, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati – ye kho te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti, idaṃ me adiṭṭhaṃ; yepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘atthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti, idaṃ me aviditaṃ. Ahañceva kho pana ajānanto apassanto ekaṃsena ādāya vohareyyaṃ – idameva saccaṃ, moghamaññanti, na metaṃ assa patirūpaṃ. Ye kho te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti, sace tesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ, ṭhānametaṃ vijjati – ye te devā arūpino saññāmayā apaṇṇakaṃ me tatrūpapatti bhavissati. Ye pana te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘atthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti, sace tesaṃ bhavataṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ saccaṃ vacanaṃ, ṭhānametaṃ vijjati – yaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme parinibbāyissāmi . Ye kho te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘natthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti, tesamayaṃ diṭṭhi sārāgāya [sarāgāya (syā. kaṃ.)] santike, saṃyogāya santike, abhinandanāya santike, ajjhosānāya santike, upādānāya santike. Ye pana te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino – ‘atthi sabbaso bhavanirodho’ti, tesamayaṃ diṭṭhi asārāgāya santike, asaṃyogāya santike, anabhinandanāya santike, anajjhosānāya santike, anupādānāya santike’’’ti. So iti paṭisaṅkhāya bhavānaṃyeva nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
104.

Cessation of becoming

"There are some contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view: 'There is no total cessation of becoming.' Some contemplatives & brahmans, speaking in direct opposition to those contemplatives & brahmans, say this: 'There is total cessation of becoming.' What do you think, householders? Don't these contemplatives & brahmans speak in direct opposition to each other?"

"Yes, lord."

"With regard to this, an observant person considers thus: 'As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is no total cessation of becoming" — I haven't seen that. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is total cessation of becoming" — I haven't known that. If I, not knowing, not seeing, were to take one side and declare, "Only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless," that would not be fitting for me. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is no total cessation of becoming": If their statement is true, there's the safe-bet possibility that I might reappear among the perception-made devas of no form. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is total cessation of becoming": If their statement is true, it is possible that I will be totally unbound in the here-&-now. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is no total cessation of becoming": This view of theirs borders on passion, borders on fettering, borders on relishing, borders on grasping, borders on clinging. As for those venerable contemplatives & brahmans who hold this doctrine, hold this view — "There is total cessation of becoming": This view of theirs borders on non-passion, borders on non-fettering, borders on non-relishing, borders on non-grasping, borders on non-clinging.' Reflecting thus, he practices for disenchantment toward becomings, for dispassion toward becomings, and for the cessation of becomings.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
104.  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門這樣說,他們持這種見解: ‘沒有 “有的息滅” 。’

  “居士們,一些沙門婆羅門則完全相反,他們這樣說: ‘有 “有的息滅” 。’

  “居士們,你們認為怎樣,這些沙門婆羅門互相之間是不是完全相反呢?”

  “大德,是的。”

  “居士們,有智慧的人這樣反思: ‘一些沙門婆羅門賢者說沒有 “有的息滅” ,但我看不見。一些沙門婆羅門賢者說有 “有的息滅” ,但我不知道。在我不知道、看不見的情形下,是不適宜執持任何一方而說某一方真、某一方假的。一些沙門婆羅門說沒有 “有的息滅” ,如果他們的說話是真的話,我修習無諍之法,可以投生至由想所作的無色界天之中。一些沙門婆羅門說有 “有的息滅” ,如果他們的說話是真的話,我可以現生得到湼槃。持沒有 “有的息滅” 這種見解的沙門婆羅門習近貪欲,習近結縛,習近愛喜,習近愛著,習近取著。持有 “有的息滅” 這種見解的沙門婆羅門習近無貪欲,習近無結縛,習近無愛喜,習近無愛著,習近無取著。’ 他這樣計量後,便進入對有厭離、無欲、寂滅的道路。

漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
104.  居士等!有一類沙門、婆羅門為如是說,如是見者:「存在之滅,以一切[行 相],可證其皆無。」居士等!對彼等沙門、婆羅門,[另有]一類沙門、婆羅門作
411 反對之說,彼等如是言:「存在之滅,以一切[行相]可證其皆有。」居士等!汝 對其作何思耶?此等沙門、婆羅門互相為相反之說,其為非耶?」[居士等曰:]「然 也,尊者。」[世尊曰:]「居士等!於是,智者如是精察之--彼等沙門、婆羅門 師尊實為如是說、如是見者:「存在之滅,以一切[行相]可證其皆無。」其為予 所不見。又[其他]沙門、婆羅門師尊為如是說、如是見者:「存在之滅,以一切 [行相]可證其皆有。」其為予所不知。而予實為不知者、不見者,卻一向決斷說: 「此是真實,其他是虛偽。」[則]予對此之斷言為不適當。沙門、婆羅門師尊實為 如是說、如是見者:「存在之滅,以一切[行相]可證其皆無。」若彼等沙門、婆 羅門師尊之語為真實,則見此論:「凡彼等無色之天,為想所成也;予定當往生彼 處。」有是理也。又,彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊為如是說、如是見者:「存在之滅, 以一切[行相]可證其皆有。」若彼等沙門、婆羅門師尊之語為真實,則見此謂: 「予以現法當般涅槃。」有是理也。沙門、婆羅門師尊實為如是說、如是見者:「存 在之滅,以一切[行相]可證其皆無。」彼等之此見,為貪欲現於前、結縛現於前、 愛樂現於前、執著現於前、取著現於前。又沙門、婆羅門師尊實為如是說、如是見 者:「存在之滅,以一切[行相]可證其皆有。」彼等之此見,為無貪欲現於前、 無結縛現於前、無愛樂現於前、無執著現於前無取著現於前。彼如是思擇而成為對 色厭惡、離欲、滅盡之行者。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
105. ‘‘Cattārome, gahapatayo, puggalā santo saṃvijjamānā lokasmiṃ. Katame cattāro? Idha, gahapatayo, ekacco puggalo attantapo hoti attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto. Idha, gahapatayo, ekacco puggalo parantapo hoti paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto. Idha, gahapatayo, ekacco puggalo attantapo ca hoti attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto parantapo ca paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto. Idha, gahapatayo, ekacco puggalo nevattantapo hoti nāttaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto na parantapo na paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto; so anattantapo aparantapo diṭṭheva dhamme nicchāto nibbuto sītībhūto sukhappaṭisaṃvedī brahmabhūtena attanā viharati.
英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
105.

Four individuals

"Householders, there are these four types of individuals to be found existing in the world. Which four? There is the case where a certain individual torments himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself. There is the case where a certain individual torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others. There is the case where a certain individual torments himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself, and also torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others. There is the case where a certain individual neither torments himself nor is he devoted to the practice of torturing himself, neither torments others nor is he devoted to the practice of torturing others. Neither tormenting himself nor tormenting others, he dwells in the here-&-now free of hunger, unbound, cooled, sensitive to happiness, with a Brahma-like mind.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
105.  “居士們,世上有四種人,是哪四種呢?一種人折磨自己,常做折磨自己的行為。一種人折磨其他眾生,常做折磨其他眾生的行為。一種人折磨自己和其他眾生,常做折磨自己和其他眾生的行為。一種人不折磨自己和其他眾生,不做折磨自己和其他眾生的行為;他在現生之中平伏、寂滅、清涼、體驗快樂,像梵天那樣生活。
漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
105.  居士等!知於現世有此等 019 四種人,云何為四?居士等!在此,有一類人使自 苦,專修使自苦之行。居士等!又在此,有一類人使他苦,專修使他苦之行。居士 等!又在此,有一類人,使自苦,專修使自苦之行;亦使他苦,專修使他苦之行。 居士等!又在此,有一類人,不便自苦,不專修使自苦之行;亦不便他苦,不專修
412 使他苦之行。彼不便自苦,不便他苦者,於現法無貪欲、達涅槃、清涼、感受樂, 由自己成為最高者而住之。

巴利原典
(CSCD)001
106. ‘‘Katamo ca, gahapatayo, puggalo attantapo attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto ? Idha, gahapatayo, ekacco puggalo acelako hoti muttācāro hatthāpalekhano…pe… [vitthāro ma. ni. 2.6-7 kandarakasutte] iti evarūpaṃ anekavihitaṃ kāyassa ātāpanaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapatayo, puggalo attantapo attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto.

‘‘Katamo ca, gahapatayo, puggalo parantapo paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto? Idha, gahapatayo, ekacco puggalo orabbhiko hoti sūkariko…pe… ye vā panaññepi keci kurūrakammantā. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapatayo, puggalo parantapo paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto.

‘‘Katamo ca, gahapatayo, puggalo attantapo ca attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto parantapo ca paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto? Idha, gahapatayo, ekacco puggalo rājā vā hoti khattiyo muddhāvasitto…pe… tepi daṇḍatajjitā bhayatajjitā assumukhā rudamānā parikammāni karonti. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapatayo, puggalo attantapo ca attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto parantapo ca paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto.

‘‘Katamo ca, gahapatayo, puggalo nevattantapo nāttaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto na parantapo na paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto; so anattantapo aparantapo diṭṭheva dhamme nicchāto nibbuto sītībhūto sukhappaṭisaṃvedī brahmabhūtena attanā viharati? Idha, gahapatayo, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ sammāsambuddho…pe… so ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ…pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ… catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

‘‘So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati seyyathidaṃ – ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo…pe… iti sākāraṃ sauddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati. So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṃ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate…pe… yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṃ khayañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So ‘idaṃ dukkha’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti…pe… ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapatayo, puggalo nevattantapo nāttaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto na parantapo na paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto; so anattantapo aparantapo diṭṭheva dhamme nicchāto nibbuto sītībhūto sukhappaṭisaṃvedī brahmabhūtena attanā viharatī’’ti.

Evaṃ vutte, sāleyyakā brāhmaṇagahapatikā bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ – ‘‘abhikkantaṃ, bho gotama, abhikkantaṃ, bho gotama! Seyyathāpi, bho gotama, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṃ bhotā gotamena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Ete mayaṃ bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāma dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsake no bhavaṃ gotamo dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gate’’ti.

Apaṇṇakasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dasamaṃ.

Gahapativaggo niṭṭhito paṭhamo.

英譯
(Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.)002
106. "And which is the individual who torments himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself? There is the case where a certain individual goes without cloth, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming when called, not staying when asked. He does not accept food brought or specially made. He does not consent to an invitation (to a meal). He doesn't receive anything from the mouth of a pot, from the mouth of a container, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman nursing a child, from a woman living with a man, from where it is announced that food is to be distributed, from where a dog is waiting, from where flies are buzzing. He accepts no meat, no distilled liquor, no wine, no fermented liquor. He limits himself to one house for one morsel, to two houses for two morsels... to seven houses for seven morsels. He lives on one saucerful a day, two saucerfuls a day... seven saucerfuls a day. He takes food once a day, once every two days... once every seven days, and so on up to once every half-month. He remains devoted to the practice of taking food at stated intervals. He eats a diet of green vegetables or millet or wild rice or hide-parings or moss or rice bran or rice-water or sesame flour or grass or cow dung. He lives off forest roots & fruits. He eats fallen fruits. He clothes himself in hemp, in canvas, in shrouds, in thrown-away rags, in tree bark, in antelope hide, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in wild-animal wool, in owls' wings. He is a hair-&-beard puller, one devoted to the practice of pulling out his hair & beard. He is a stander, one who rejects seats. He is a hands-around-the-knees sitter, one devoted to the exertion of sitting with his hands around his knees. He is a spike-mattresser, one who makes his bed on a bed of spikes. He is a third-time-in-the-evening bather, one who stays devoted to the practice of bathing in water. Thus, in these many ways, he is devoted to the practice of tormenting & persecuting the body. This is called an individual who torments himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself.

"And which is the individual who torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others? There is the case where a certain individual is a butcher of sheep, a butcher of pigs, a butcher of fowl, a trapper, a hunter, a fisherman, a thief, an executioner, 009 a prison warden, or anyone who follows any other bloody occupation. This is called an individual who torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others.

"And which is the individual who torments himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself, and also torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others? There is the case where an individual is a head-anointed noble warrior king, or a brahman of great wealth. Having had a new temple built to the east of the city, having shaved off his hair & beard, having dressed himself in a rough hide, having smeared his body with ghee & oil, and scratching his back with a deer horn, he enters the new temple along with his chief queen & brahman high brahman. There he makes his bed on the bare ground strewn with grass. The king lives off the milk from the first teat of a cow with an identical calf; the queen lives off the milk from the second teat; the brahman high brahman, off the milk from the third teat. The milk from the fourth teat they pour 010 into the fire. The calf lives on what is left.

"He says, 'Let so many bulls be slaughtered for the sacrifice. Let so many bullocks... so many heifers... so many goats... so many sheep... Let so many horses be slaughtered for the sacrifice. 011 Let so many trees be cut down for the sacrificial posts; let so many plants grass be mowed down for the sacrificial grass.' And his slaves, servants, & workers make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, spurred on by punishment, spurred on by fear. This is called an individual who torments himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself, and also torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others.

"And which is the individual who neither torments himself nor is devoted to the practice of torturing himself, neither torments others nor is devoted to the practice of torturing others; who — neither tormenting himself nor tormenting others — dwells in the here-&-now free of hunger, unbound, cooled, sensitive to happiness with a Brahma-like mind?

"There is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

"A householder or householder's son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: 'Household life is confining, a dusty path. Life gone forth is the open air. It isn't easy, living at home, to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure, a polished shell. What if I, having shaved off my hair & beard and putting on the ochre robe, were to go forth from the household life into homelessness?'

"So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.

Virtue

"When he has thus gone forth, endowed with the monks' training & livelihood, then — abandoning the taking of life — he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings.

"Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure. This, too, is part of his virtue.

"Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager's way.

"Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.

"Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord.

"Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large.

"Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal.

"He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

"He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.

"He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching shows.

"He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and cosmetics.

"He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

"He abstains from accepting gold and money.

"He abstains from accepting uncooked grain... raw meat... women and girls... male and female slaves... goats and sheep... fowl and pigs... elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares... fields and property.

"He abstains from running messages... from buying and selling... from dealing with false scales, false metals, and false measures... from bribery, deception, and fraud.

"He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

"He is content with a set of robes to provide for his body and alms food to provide for his hunger. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden; so too is he content with a set of robes to provide for his body and alms food to provide for his hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his barest necessities along.

"Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless.

Sense restraint

"On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a sound with the ear... On smelling an odor with the nose... On tasting a flavor with the tongue... On touching a tactile sensation with the body... On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the sense faculties, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless.

Mindfulness & alertness

"When going forward and returning, he makes himself alert. When looking toward and looking away... when bending and extending his limbs... when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl... when eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting... when urinating and defecating... when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and remaining silent, he makes himself alert.

Abandoning the hindrances

"Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness & alertness, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a wilderness, the shade of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a forest grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning from his alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.

"Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth and drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth and drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness and anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of uncertainty.

The four jhanas

"Having abandoned these five hindrances — imperfections of awareness that weaken discernment — then, quite secluded from sensuality, secluded from unskillful qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born of seclusion, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation.

"Then, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of concentration, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance.

"Then, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters and remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.'

"Then, with the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain.

The three knowledges

"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives (lit: previous homes). He recollects his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion, [recollecting], 'There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.' Thus he recollects his manifold past lives in their modes and details. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: 'These beings — who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views — with the breakup of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a plane of deprivation, a bad destination, a lower realm, hell. But these beings — who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views — with the breakup of the body, after death, have re-appeared in a good destination, a heavenly world.' Thus — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma.

"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it is actually present, that 'This is stress... This is the origination of stress... This is the cessation of stress... This is the way leading to the cessation of stress... These are fermentations... This is the origination of fermentations... This is the cessation of fermentations... This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.' His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, 'Released.' He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

"This is called an individual who neither torments himself nor is devoted to the practice of torturing himself, who neither torments others nor is devoted to the practice of torturing others. Neither tormenting himself nor tormenting others, he dwells in the here-&-now free of hunger, unbound, cooled, sensitive to happiness, with a Brahma-like mind."

When this was said, the brahman householders of Sala said, "Magnificent, master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has master Gotama — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. We go to master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May master Gotama remember us as lay followers who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

See also: MN 45; MN 95

"Apannaka Sutta: A Safe Bet" (MN 60), translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight, 12 February 2012, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.060.than.html . Retrieved on 23 June 2012.

漢譯
(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)003
106.    “居士們,什麼是折磨自己,常做折磨自己的行為的人呢?

  “居士們,一些裸體外道,不跟隨常人的生活習慣,不用缽而只用手來盛載食物吃,不接受別人呼喚過去取的食物,不接受別人呼喚停下來取的食物,不接受別人帶來的食物,不接受專為自己準備的食物,不接受別人邀請供養的食物,不取盤中的食物,不取鍋中的食物,不在門檻間接受食物,不在棒杖間接受食物,不在杵臼間接受食物,不在有兩人在吃食物的地方接受食物,不在有人懷孕的地方接受食物,不在有人哺乳的地方接受食物,不在有人性交的地方接受食物,不在有人專作布施的地方接受食物,不在有狗看守的地方接受食物,不在蒼蠅群集的地方接受食物,不接受魚類,不接受肉類,不飲酒,不飲果酒,不飲米酒。

  “他們只去七家化食及只取七口食物,只去六家化食及只取六口食物……以至只去一家化食及只取一口食物;一天化食一次,兩天才化食一次……以至七天才化食一次;一天吃食物一次,兩天才吃食物一次……以至七天才吃食物一次。他們以這方法來修習,直至每逢半個月才吃食物一次。

  “他們只吃野菜、麥、生米、野米、水草、穀、米水渣、芝麻、草、牛糞;他們只吃樹下的果子和野果。

  “他們穿麻、粗麻、裹屍布、破布、樹皮、羚羊皮、羚羊皮條、吉祥草衣、樹皮衣、木條衣、頭髮衣、馬尾毛衣、貓頭鷹羽毛衣。

  “他們是一些修習拔鬚髮的人,常把自己的鬚髮拔除;他們是一些修習長期站立的人,不使用坐具;他們是一些修習長時間蹲下的人,盡力保持蹲下的姿勢;他們是一些修習睡刺床的人,睡在帶有尖刺的床上;他們是一些每天沐浴三次的人,晚上也會到水中沐浴。

  “他們修習以上各種的方法,不斷折磨、嚴重折磨這個身體。居士們,這就是稱為折磨自己,常做折磨自己的行為的人了。

  “居士們,什麼是折磨其他眾生,常做折磨其他眾生的行為的人呢?

  “居士們,一些屠羊、屠豬等屠夫,捕鳥、捕獸、捕魚等獵師,盜賊、劊子手、獄卒,或做任何血腥、殘忍行業的人。居士們,這就是稱為折磨其他眾生,常做折磨其他眾生的行為的人了。

  “居士們,什麼是折磨自己和其他眾生,常做折磨自己和其他眾生的行為的人呢?

  “居士們,一些灌頂剎帝利王或有大壇場的婆羅門,在都城東面建造一所新的聚集堂後,剃掉頭髮和鬍鬚,穿上皮革衣,塗上酥油,用鹿角來搔背癢;他與夫人、婆羅門、主祭師一起進入舖上青草的聚集堂,首先從母牛身上喝一口牛乳,夫人喝第二口,婆羅門與主祭師同喝第三口,再把剩下來小牛賴以生存的牛乳擠乾,用來祭火,他這樣說: ‘宰殺多些公牛來祭祀吧,宰殺多些小牛來祭祀吧,宰殺多些小乳牛來祭祀吧,宰殺多些綿羊來祭祀吧,宰殺多些山羊來祭祀吧,斬截多些樹來造祭祀柱吧,收割多些草來作祭祀草吧!’ 他的僕人、傭人、工人迫於無奈,只好哭泣、臉上帶著淚水地做祭祀的工作。居士們,這就是稱為折磨自己和其他眾生,常做折磨自己和其他眾生的行為的人了。

  “居士們,什麼是不折磨自己和其他眾生,不做折磨自己和其他眾生的行為;在現生之中平伏、寂滅、清涼、體驗快樂,像梵天那樣生活的人呢?

  “居士們,如來出現於世上,是一位阿羅漢.等正覺.明行具足.善逝.世間解.無上士.調御者.天人師.佛.世尊;親身證得無比智,然後在這個有天神、魔羅、梵天、沙門、婆羅門、國王、眾人的世間宣說法義;所說的法義開首、中間、結尾都是善美的,有意義、有好的言辭、圓滿、清淨、開示梵行。

  “居士或出身於各種種姓的人聽了這些法義之後,對如來生起了敬信;有了這份敬信,他這樣反思: ‘在家生活有很多障礙,是塵垢之道;出家生活有如空曠的地方那樣沒有障礙。在家生活不易生活在圓滿、清淨、如螺那樣潔白的梵行之中。讓我剃掉頭髮和鬍鬚,穿著袈裟衣,從家庭生活中出家,過沒有家庭的生活吧。’ 後來,他捨棄所有財富,捨棄所有親屬,剃掉頭髮和鬍鬚,穿著袈裟衣,從家庭生活中出家,過沒有家庭的生活。

  “他成為一位出家人,具有比丘的修學和比丘的正命。他捨棄殺生、遠離殺生,放下棒杖、放下武器,對所有生命都有悲憫心。他捨棄偷盜、遠離偷盜,別人不給的東西便不取,別人不給的東西便不要;有一個不偷盜的清淨心。他捨棄非梵行,他是一個梵行者,遠離性行為這世俗的行為。他捨棄妄語、遠離妄語,他說真話、只說真話、誠實、可信賴、說話沒有前後不一。他捨棄兩舌、遠離兩舌、不會說離間別人的話,他幫助分裂的得到復合、喜歡和合、景仰和合、欣樂和合、說使人和合的話。他捨棄惡口、遠離惡口,無論他說什麼,都柔和、悅耳、和藹、親切、有禮、令人歡喜、令人心悅。他捨棄綺語、遠離綺語,他說適時的話、真實的話、有意義的話、和法有關的話、和律有關的話、有價值的話,他在適當的時候說話,說話有道理,適可而止,對人有益。

  “他遠離損害種子和植物的行為;他一天只吃一餐,過了中午不吃東西,遠離非時食;遠離觀看跳舞、唱歌、奏樂、表演;遠離花環、香水、膏油、飾物;遠離豪華的大床;遠離接受金銀錢財;遠離接受穀物;遠離接受生肉;遠離接受婦女;遠離接受僕人;遠離接受禽畜;遠離接受農田;遠離替人做信使;遠離做買賣;遠離欺騙的量秤;遠離賄賂、欺騙、詐騙;遠離傷害、殺害、綑綁、攔劫、搶掠。

  “他對能蔽體的衣服知足、對能果腹的食物知足,無論去哪裏,都只是和衣缽隨行。就正如雀鳥和牠的羽翼,無論雀鳥飛去哪裏,都只是和雙翼隨行。同樣地,一位比丘對能蔽體的衣服知足、對能果腹的食物知足,無論去哪裏,都只是和衣缽隨行。他具有聖者之戒蘊,親身體驗沒有過失之樂。

  “他在眼看到色之後,不執取形,不執取相。他知道如果不約束眼根的話,貪著、苦惱這些惡不善法便會漏入內心,因此他約束眼根,守護眼根,修習眼根律儀。

  “他在耳聽到聲之後……
  “他在鼻嗅到香之後……
  “他在舌嚐到味之後……
  “他在身感到觸之後……
  “他在意想到法之後,不執取形,不執取相。他知道如果不約束意根的話,貪著、苦惱這些惡不善法便會漏入內心,因此他約束意根,守護意根,修習意根律儀。他具有聖者之根律儀,親身體驗無染之樂。

  “他在往還的時候,對往還有覺知;在向前觀望、向周圍觀望的時候,對向前觀望、向周圍觀望有覺知;在屈伸身體的時候,對屈伸身體有覺知;在穿衣持缽的時候,對穿衣持缽有覺知;在飲食、咀嚼、感受味覺的時候,對飲食、咀嚼、感受味覺有覺知;在大便、小便的時候,對大便、小便有覺知;在行走、站立、坐下、睡覺、睡醒、說話、靜默的時候,對行走、站立、坐下、睡覺、睡醒、說話、靜默有覺知。   “他具有聖者之戒蘊、聖者之根律儀、聖者之念和覺知,居住在叢林、樹下、深山、山谷、岩洞、墓地、森林、曠野、草堆等遠離的住處之中。他在化食完畢,吃過食物後返回,然後盤腿坐下來,豎直腰身,把念保持安放在要繫念的地方。

  “他捨棄世上的貪欲,超越貪欲;內心清除了貪欲。

  “他捨棄瞋恚,心中沒有瞋恚,只有利益和悲憫所有眾生;內心清除了瞋恚。

  “他捨棄昏睡,超越昏睡,有光明想,有念和覺知;內心清除了昏睡。

  “他捨棄掉悔,沒有激盪,有一個內裏平靜的心;內心清除了掉悔。

  “他捨棄疑惑,超越疑惑,沒有疑惑;內心清除了對善法的疑惑。

  “他捨棄使內心污穢、使智慧軟弱的五蓋,內心離開了五欲、離開了不善法,有覺、有觀,有由離開五欲和不善法所生起的喜和樂;他進入了初禪。他平息了覺和觀,內裏平伏、內心安住一境,沒有覺、沒有觀,有由定所生起的喜和樂;他進入了二禪。他保持捨心,對喜沒有貪著,有念和覺知,通過身體來體會樂──聖者說: ‘這人有捨,有念,安住在樂之中。’ ──他進入了三禪。他滅除了苦和樂,喜和惱在之前已經消失,沒有苦、沒有樂,有捨、念、清淨;他進入了四禪。

  “當他的內心有定、清淨、明晰、沒有斑點、沒有污染、柔軟、受駕馭、安住、不動搖時,把心導向宿命智。他能憶起過去無數生的事情──不論一生、兩生、三生、百生、千生、百千生,不論無數的成劫、無數的壞劫、無數的成壞劫──在那一生之中是什麼姓名,什麼種族,什麼種姓,吃什麼食物,體會什麼苦與樂,壽命有多長,死後又投生到另一生;而在另一生之中又是什麼姓名,什麼種族,什麼種姓,吃什麼食物,體會什麼苦與樂,壽命有多長,死後又再投生到另一生。他能憶起過去無數生的生活方式和生活細節。

  “當他的內心有定、清淨、明晰、沒有斑點、沒有污染、柔軟、受駕馭、安住、不動搖時,把心導向眾生生死智。他以清淨及超於常人的天眼,看見眾生怎樣死後再次投生;知道不同的業使眾生在上等或下等、高種姓或低種姓、善趣或惡趣的地方投生──這些眾生由於具有身不善行、口不善行、意不善行,責難聖者,懷有邪見,做出由邪見所驅動的業,因此在身壞命終之後投生在惡趣、地獄之中;那些眾生由於具有身善行、口善行、意善行,稱讚聖者,懷有正見,做出由正見所驅動的業,因此在身壞命終之後投生在善趣、天界之中。

  “當他的內心有定、清淨、明晰、沒有斑點、沒有污染、柔軟、受駕馭、安住、不動搖時,把心導向漏盡智。他如實知道什麼是苦,如實知道什麼是苦集,如實知道什麼是苦滅,如實知道什麼是苦滅之道;他如實知道什麼是漏,如實知道什麼是漏集,如實知道什麼是漏滅,如實知道什麼是漏滅之道。當他有了以上的知見時,心便從欲漏、有漏、無明漏之中解脫出來。在得到解脫時會帶來一種解脫智,他知道:生已經盡除,梵行已經達成,應要做的已經做完,沒有下一生。居士們,這就是稱為不折磨自己和其他眾生,不做折磨自己和其他眾生的行為;在現生之中平伏、寂滅、清涼、體驗快樂,像梵天那樣生活的人了。”

  當世尊說了這番話後,娑羅村的婆羅門居士對他說: “喬答摩賢者,妙極了!喬答摩賢者,妙極了!喬答摩賢者能以各種不同的方式來演說法義,就像把倒轉了的東西反正過來;像為受覆蓋的東西揭開遮掩;像為迷路者指示正道;像在黑暗中拿著油燈的人,使其他有眼睛的人可以看見東西。我們皈依喬答摩賢者、皈依法、皈依比丘僧。願喬答摩賢者接受我們為優婆塞,從現在起,直至命終,終生皈依!”

無諍經完
漢譯
(元亨寺版)004
106.  居士等!然云何為使自苦,專修使自苦之行者耶?居士等!在此,有一類裸形 者、脫糞行者舐手者--(如中部經典第五十一經乾達建羅迦經中之廣說)--行如
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一六九 ~ 一七0)
是種種身體之苦行、難行。居士等!此謂之使自苦,專修使自苦之行者。又,居士 等!云何是使他苦,專修使他苦之行者。居士等!在此,有一類人為屠羊者、屠豬 狗者……乃至……或作其他之殘酷業者。居士等!此謂之專使他苦,專修使他苦之 行者。又,居士等!云何為使自苦,專修使自苦之行;亦使他苦,專修使他苦之行 者?居士等!在此,有一類王者或王族之灌頂者……乃至……對彼等以杖脅之、以 恐怖而嚇之、使之流涕悲哭而作(諸犧牲祭之)準備。居士等!此謂之使自苦,專 修使自苦之行,亦使他苦,專修使他苦之行也。又,居士等云何為不使自苦,不 專修使自苦之行;不便他苦、不再修使他苦之行;即彼不使自苦亦不使他苦,而於 現法無貪欲、達涅槃、清涼、感受樂,由自己成為最高者而住之。居士等!在此, 如來出世為應供、等正覺者……乃至……世尊。彼捨此等五蓋--諸心穢、慧羸、 離諸欲、離諸不善法,有尋、有伺、由離生喜樂,初禪……乃至……第二禪……乃 至第三禪……乃至成就第四禪而住之。彼如是於心等持、清淨、皎潔、無穢、無垢、 柔軟、堪任、確立、不動,彼心向於宿住隨念智。彼憶念種種宿住,即如:一生、
413 二生……乃至……如是憶念行相、境遇種種宿住。彼如是於心等持、清淨、皎潔、 無穢、無垢、柔軟、堪任、確立、不動、彼心向於有情生死智。彼以清淨、超人之 天眼,見諸有情之生死,貴賤、美醜、幸與不幸……乃至……知諸有情各隨其業而 受報。彼知是如是於心等持、清淨、皎潔、無穢、無垢、柔軟、堪任、確立、不動, 彼心向於漏盡智。彼如實知:「此是苦也」……乃至……「此是漏滅之道也。」彼 由如是知、如是見,由欲漏而心解脫,由有漏而心解脫,由無明漏而心解脫;於解 脫,有「已解脫」之智。彼知「生已盡、梵行已立、應作已作,不更受此[輪迴] 之狀態。居士等!此謂不便自己苦、不專修使自苦之行;亦不使他苦、不專修使他 苦之行。彼不使自苦,不使他苦,於現法無貪欲、達涅槃、清涼、感受樂,由自己 成為最高者而住之。

如是言已,薩羅村之婆羅門居士等如此白世尊曰:「偉哉!師尊瞿曇!偉哉!師 尊瞿曇!世尊恰如能扶起倒者,能揭露被覆者,對迷者能導之以道,於闇中能持來 明燈、使有眼者得見諸色。如是師尊瞿曇以種種方便開示法。在此!予等歸依師尊 瞿曇、[蹄依]法及[歸依]比丘僧伽。願師尊瞿曇認予等,自今以後終生歸依[佛、 法、僧]為優婆塞。
(中部經典二‧六十 無戲論經‧一七一 ~ 一七二)


備註:

〔註001〕 巴利原典乃參考【國際內觀中心】(Vipassana Meditation, As Taught By S.N. Goenka in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin)所發行之《第六次結集》(巴利大藏經) CSCD(Chattha Sangayana CD)。網路版請參考: http://www.tipitaka.org/ (請選 Roman→Web → Tipiṭaka (Mūla) → Suttapiṭaka → Majjhimanikāya → Majjhimapaṇṇāsapāḷi → 1. Gahapativaggo → 10. Apaṇṇakasuttaṃ )。

〔註002〕英譯為 坦尼沙羅尊者所譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu.);請參考: Access to Insight:Readings in Theravada Buddhism 網站-- Majjhima Nikaya(The Middle-length Discourses)之 MN 60 Apannaka Sutta: A Safe Bet {PTS: PTS: M i 400} [Thanissaro] 。

〔註003〕 本譯文請參考:《無諍經》;蕭式球譯;《巴利文翻譯組學報》第七期(2009.7月, ISBN 978-962-7714-52-1);編輯:志蓮淨苑文化部;出版:志蓮淨苑;地址香港九龍鑽石山志蓮道五號;www.chilin.org;網路版請參考: 巴利文佛典選譯(香港 志蓮淨苑文化部--佛學園圃--5. 南傳佛教之 5.1.2.060 無諍經 無諍經)

〔註004〕 本譯文請參考:《無戲論經》;通妙譯;《南傳大藏經》《中部經典》二;Pp. 154;臺灣.高雄.“元亨寺”出版;

〔註005〕 This was the view of Ajita Kesakambalin. See DN 2.

〔註006〕 In this context — where that actual truth or falseness of the doctrine is not being addressed — "wrong view" would have to mean a view that leads a person to engage in bad conduct in body, speech, or mind.

〔註007〕 This was the view of Purana Kassapa. See DN 2.

〔註008〕 This was the view of Makkhali Gosala. See DN 2.

〔註009〕 The Burmese edition of the Canon here adds, "a slaughterer of cows."

〔註010〕 This follows the Sinhalese, Burmese, and PTS editions of the Canon. The Thai edition reads, "he pours."

〔註011〕 The PTS and Sinhalese editions omit the sentence, "Let so many horses be slaughtered for the sacrifice."

〔註012〕 無戲論法(apappaka-dhamma)對此譯語參照南傳藏二十八 註1於此panna梵語panca之轉變,panca與 parpanca大體同意義。予亦從此譯之,但panca與parp-anca本來均是「擴大」之意,因此從多歧互意,多 歧互迷議論之意想可釋為戲論。然不見為panna是panca轉變,可見為parna(羽、葉)的轉變。即於羽於葉二 者均為多數故apanpaka可得解為「二又或不分為多數」之意,可見是不多歧指根本一道,即中道。佛音常註 為aviruddha(無障)advejjhagamin(不分開)ekamsagahika(執於一向)之意,panna不解為羽、葉,但原語 之意結果是同樣。

〔註013〕 此說參照長部第二經一七中部第四十一經第七十六經等。

〔註014〕 「惡」(dus)此字巴利聖典協會本及暹羅皇室出版本及本與亦無,註釋本之暹羅皇室出版本有應取其有的之 義。

〔註015〕 說有論者(atthikavada)是對前者之無戲論者(natthikavada)。

〔註016〕 「作者」原文有karato異本有karoto佛音之釋有明顯之karontassa故依而譯之。

〔註017〕 此說長部第二經二0,中部第七十六經等參照。

〔註018〕 「定」apannakam前面譯為戲論,此用為副詞,不多歧如前註1,用為副詞故譯「定」。

〔註019〕 以下參照中部第五十一經。


資訊更新日期: 07.01, 佛曆 (BE) 2555;
(西元 AD 2012)

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