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心身作用的原理及關於靈的一些思考 1995

Y.D. Tsai of NCKU

ABSTRACT

•建議用「目錄在左」的雙視窗閱讀

•關閉目錄視窗

本文分二部份共七節:

第一部份: 意識狀態、幻覺與心身作用–
一個關於夢、經絡及其它相關現象的理論
Part I: A Psychosomatic Theory of Dreams

(1)我提出一個極其簡單的腦工作模型,解構所謂通靈經驗,包括見到或聽到鬼神、靈魂出竅、鬼神附身…,並進而以此模型解釋催眠、多重人格、氣功、見到飛碟…等等很多原本看似難以理解的現象,它們都是由夢所衍生出的意識異常狀態。(2)提出人作夢(rapid eye movement, REM)的目的、氣功治病的機制、禪定、假懷孕等心身作用及中醫針灸、把脈的原理。(3)討論有限度、有神經基礎的超感知覺從本文的模型來看是合理、可能的。

第二部份: 關於靈的一些思考
Part II: Some Thoughts on the Existence of Soul

(4)討論通靈、算命應是不可能的,純意志的力量應是不存在的。(5)討論靈魂概念的荒謬性,並從哲學認識論的觀點解釋它是不必要的。人會要求靈魂的存在乃是源於理性邏輯的超限使用所引起的〝超(於經)驗(的)錯覺〞(transcendental illusion,或先驗錯覺)。(6)從量子物理討論自由意志的存在並不要求〝靈〞的存在。(7)最後討論〝宇宙中心感〞、〝唯一感〞等乃是人腦中一個程式〝我〞的內部概念(而無外在客觀的証明),這些概念是人類一直相信有靈魂在生前死後存在的最根本原因。
超驗錯覺、通靈經驗(有些可能含有些許超感知覺)及對自然現象的不了解(物理的、生理的、統計的)共同促成了各式各樣、各說各話的宗教。




第一部份(Part I):意識狀態、幻覺與心身作用–
一個關於夢、經絡及其它相關現象的理論

理論摘要:

  目前學界流行的一個看法是:夢是腦在作資訊處理時所釋出的一些神經衝動造成的,故與人的慾望無甚大關係。至今尚無實驗證明或否定這看法,但我提出一個非常直覺而簡單的理論,它不僅說明夢確實是由幻想產生的,還可解釋許多流行的夢理論無法觸及的不尋常現象。

  本文的假說主要有三(互相獨立):
(1)剝離假說–人腦內有一個遍佈全意識腦的程式〝我〞,它統合、協調各類意識活動(意念、幻想、感覺、運動、思考判斷…等等),並監督記憶儲存(非提取)。許多怪異的精神現象(意識狀態),包括催眠、多重人格、及一些經常被歸於鬼神的,其實是起因於某些意識活動的與〝我〞分離(〝精神剝離〞,例意念剝離、感覺或運動剝離…等等)。而從一些現象判斷,情緒性的意念(甚至幻想)可能有兩個以上。
(2)模擬假說–自主神經除接受來自感覺神經的真實訊號外,也接受來自〝感覺幻想〞的模擬訊號(根源於感覺記憶),但其接受管道只在幻想剝離時接通。幻想訊號被接收之前有〝感覺回饋〞,造成作夢、通靈、幽浮、氣功等等幻覺。回饋有引導、增強或穩定幻想的作用,也能引起與真實情況類似的情緒反應(恐懼、憤怒、愉悅等等)而再間接地影響自主神經。因剝離幻想具有驅動自主神經的功能,它或許可以解讀一些通常只會引起自主神經的反應而不被意識感知的〝超感覺〞神經訊號,故有限度、有神經基礎的超感知覺是合理、可能的。
(3)經絡假說–局部受傷時除了會自動釋出某些物質進行修補外,也有自主神經的參予。自主中樞內的〝修補神經〞(其作用之一是擴張微血管,即放鬆微血管前端括約肌增加血流量)與痛覺神經及壓覺神經直接連接,與壓覺的連接(以保持血流暢通)能解釋人作夢的目的及氣功幻覺能治病的原因。修補神經在腦中(及脊椎?)的排列形成中醫〝經絡〞,而當某些修補神經因痛感或壓感而發出修補訊號時,也會連鎖地擴及同經絡上的其它修補神經,故經絡上的其它地方也能受益。經絡連鎖反應存在的一個目的是讓肌肉運動及體表(尤其是腳底及手掌)所受的壓揉帶動內臟的滋補,故愈運動壓揉,內臟也愈健康。

  而作夢正是在生長激素升高時,模擬極密集的運動壓揉訊號,利用經絡擴張微血管修補身體或促進身體成長。模擬可確保身體不同部位的微血管是以適當比例擴張,而不是均勻擴張。作夢目的:(1)修補(可能有積極的意義,而不只是彌補睡眠時的運動缺乏);(2)達成心身作用。精神剝離與經絡存在的主要目的分別是為了夢的製作與功能。雖然作夢期間可能也有記憶強化的作用,但這應與夢境的出現無關(只是身體修補與記憶強化兩件事同時進行)。經絡的存在被中國人發現而用來以針灸、刮痧或按摩治病。中國人所謂的〝氣〞是一種脹脹(壓)麻麻(痛)的幻覺,它能促成微血管的擴張。中醫〝把脈〞也可解釋為,心臟壓縮時,因經絡上微血管脹縮所引起的阻力分布不同,而有不同的腕部脈搏類型。

States of Consciousness, Hallucination and Mind-Body Interaction
--- A Theory of Dreams, Meridians and Other Related Phenomena

Y.D.Tsai
National Cheng-Kung Univ., TAIWAN
1995

A popular view in today's science is that dreams are resulted from brain's off-line processing of information, hence they have little to do with the dreamer's deep desire. While there has been no experiment to prove or disprove this, I suggest a very intuitive and simple theory that can explain not only how dreams are actually a product of imagination, but also a wide array of unusual phenomena which can not be explained by the popular theory of dreams.

The major independent hypotheses in this article are threefold:
(1) Dissociation Hypothesis - Inside each brain, there is an ubiquitous (i.e. distributed over the entire conscious brain) program "I", or conscious self, which coordinates various kinds of mental functions (cortices), such as thinking, imagining, sensing, moving, reasoning, etc. (see Fig. I). "I" also supervises memory storage (not retrieval). Many bizarre phenomena (states of consciousness), including hypnosis, multi-personality and those frequently attributed to gods and spirits, are actually the results of the dissociation of certain mental functions from "I" ("mind dissociation", e.g. thought dissociation, sense or movement dissociation, etc.) There are clues suggesting that there might be more than one set of thinking (and imagining).
(2) Simulation Hypothesis - The autonomous nerves receive not only the real signals from the sensory nerves but also the simulated signals from imagination, which draws the needed material from the sensory memory. However, the receiving channels for imaginative signals are open only in the state of "imagination dissociation". Before the reception of these signals, there is a "sensory feedback", which results in hallucination such as dreams, hearing or seeing spirits, sighting of UFO, "Tsigong" (or Qigong氣功), etc. (see Fig. II ). Feedback can guide, strengthen or stabilize the imagination (mainly for dreaming). It also stimulates mood responses such as fear, anger or joy as in real situation, and hence once more affects the autonomous nerves in an indirect way. Since the dissociated imagination has the function of driving the autonomous nerves, it might be able to decipher some "extra" sensory signals which are normally only responded by the autonomous nerves but not taken in by consciousness. Hence, the existence of some limited and nerve-based extra sensory perception (ESP) is reasonable and possible.
(3) Meridian Hypothesis - When a body part is inflicted, its repair involves not only the automatic release of some biochemicals, but also some actions from the autonomous nerves. The "repair nerves", one of whose actions is to expand the blood capillaries by relaxing the precapillary sphincters, inside the central autonomous system connect with the compression nerves and the pain nerves. The connection with compression (to keep the blood flowing) can explain the purpose of dreams and why "Tsigong" hallucination can cure bodily disorders. The repair nerves in the brain (and spine?) are grouped into many serpentine chains which are called "meridians" (Dzingluo or Zingluo經絡) by the Chinese school of medicine. When some repair nerves are prodded by pain or compression from some part of the body to send out their repair signals, a chain reaction spreads out to set other repair nerves in the same meridian into action, hence other parts of the body can also be benefited. A purpose of this chain reaction is to allow the muscular movement and compression on the outer parts of the body, especially on the palms and soles, to bring along the daily nourishment of internal organs. As a result, physical exercises would also make healthier organs.

And dreams (rapid eye movements, REMs) actually employ meridians to repair the body, help it grow and develop, by simulating very intensive movement-compression signals to expand the blood vessels when the level of growth enzymes go high. Simulation can ensure that the expansion of blood vessels in different parts of body are in right proportions, not uniformly. The purposes of dreams are: (a) to repair body (probably more than making up the deficiency of exercise during sleep); and (b) to effect mind-body interaction. Mind dissociation and meridians exist mainly for the making and function of dreams respectively. Although it is possible that long term memory is consolidated during the dream period, it has nothing to do with the appearance of dreams. Body repair and memory consolidation are conducted at the same time. The meridian chain reaction was utilized by ancient Chinese who began, without knowing the reason, the seemingly bizarre practices like acupuncture, scratching (刮痧) and massage. The so called "Tsi" (or Qi) by Chinese is a hallucinative sensation of swollenness (compression) or tingling (pain), which can cause the expansion of blood vessels. The "pulse-feeling" diagnosis can also be explained as that a change in the distribution of resistance, caused by the expansion or constriction of blood vessels along meridians, will change the wrist pulse pattern when the heart pumps.

P.S. Some points for those who can not read Chinese:

(a) "I" Doesn't Think, yet "I" Exists
Some Buddhist monks can experience a state in which they lose all senses and have no thought, yet they are not asleep and feel themselves melted with the universe (have no sense of body boundary), and they remember this experience. This is the pure state of "I", which exists as these monks can attest. "I" is the conscious self or awareness.

(b) Examples of Mind-Body Interaction through Hallucinations or Dreams
Some monks can voluntarily change their body’s temperatures as follows: First they imagine themselves in some very cold or hot environments, then their imaginations are dissociated to create hallucinations and their body’s metabolic rates are changed.
Another example is the pseudo-pregnancy in some women. Women with an extremely strong desire to be pregnant often have dreams or hallucinations of being pregnant, and their autonomous nerves respond to these hallucinative sensory signals to prepare their bodies, hence they experience the true pregnancy symptoms such as widening of the abdomen, enlargement of the breasts, etc.

(c) An Explanation of Hypnosis
When a person is hypnotized, it might be that his/her imagination is dissociated and sends the imagined content back to the sensory cortex, resulting in dreams or hallucinations; or some of senses are dissociated, resulting in hypnotic anesthesia; or motor function is dissociated, resulting in immobility; or reason is dissociated and he/she obeys the hypnotist’s orders; or thought is dissociated and not controlled by reason, hence strives to straighten out his/her body between two chairs. A command can also be planted into the hypnotized mind and acted out accordingly long after the session of hypnosis, as follows: A person obeys the orders of reason in normal state, but when hypnotized, his/her reason is replaced by the hypnotist's command to make decisions or believes, and he/she will be very uneasy if he/she does not do things as decided or his/her belief is contradicted. Hypnotherapy is also based on this principle.

(d) An Explanation of Multi-Personality
Every cerebral cortex area has its own function and associated memory. The thought area has the memory of events and emotions. At some stage of his/her life, a patient of multi-personality disorder created a new thought subsystem and dissociated the others, and then grew up with multiple subsystems alternatedly.

一、一個簡單的精神模型–
論夢、通靈、催眠、多重人格…等等現象

  每個人都會作夢。夢中有場景、有對話,這些人或物或意念相對於夢中的〝我〞都是外來物。然而這些場景人物其實都是我們日常生活中一些印象記憶的拼湊,意念也是源於自己腦中。故人在睡眠狀態會有一種〝精神剝離〞現象,一部份的想像與意念會被當作是外來,而另一部份則仍屬於〝我〞。或許這是腦不同部份間的對話。能各自產生意念、想像的腦區不只一個(即能執行這些程式的腦區有二個以上,左腦與右腦﹖或雖糾纏一起但系統分明的數個不同神經群﹖),而在精神剝離狀態只有部份腦區的輸出與〝我〞的意識(conscious self,註1-1)連接,而於其它部份(〝剝離腦區〞)發生的意念、幻想則相對於〝我〞以外來的意見或圖像出現。剝離腦區輸出的幻想或